Youth InfoNet 101 (Part 1) - March 2013

Evidence-Based Guidelines for Youth Peer Education 2014 Version: Updated with gender content

This guide helps readers to develop new, high-quality peer education programs for young people ages 10-24 years and to improve existing programs. Although the focus is on peers working with young people to improve their sexual and reproductive health, these guidelines can be applied more broadly to other types of peer education programs as well. This second edition of the publication provides updated technical content and incorporates information about addressing gender inequality in peer education programs.

IYWG Global and Field-Based Assessment Reports

Since 2006, FHI 360 has managed the technical content for USAID’s Interagency Youth Working Group (IYWG). FHI 360 supports the IYWG in synthesizing and disseminating new information on youth research and programs, as well as promoting best practices among youth programs globally. To assess the use of IYWG knowledge management resources and three major tools produced by FHI 360 for the IYWG, we conducted four assessments in 2012. This document presents a summary of the assessments’ methods, results, and resulting recommendations.

Positive Connections (adaptation brochure)

Voices against Violence

In partnership with UN Women, the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) has developed a non-formal education curriculum to support girls, young women, boys and young men to: 
  • Identify different forms of violence
  • Understand their rights
  • Gain the skills in advocacy and leadership to claim these rights and end violence against girls.

UN World Youth Report: Youth and Migration

The report focuses largely on the phenomena of international migration, which increasingly has a significant impact on the origin, transit and destination countries and communities. The consequences are complex, context-specific and subject to change over time. They may be influenced by factors such as the type of migration, migrant category, national migration policies, and programmatic interventions that are in place in a particular locale. The structure of the report takes into consideration both the dimensions of processes and types of migration.

Safe Cities Free From Violence against Women and Girls: Baseline Findings from the "Safe City Delhi Programme"

Sexual violence encompasses a broad range of unwanted behavior ranging from verbal and sexual harassment, exhibitionism, touching or groping certain body parts, to rape. Whether experienced on the street or on a bus, in a market or in a park, sexual violence is a gross violation of women’s and girls’ rights to move about safely and participate in public life. Both fear and actual experience of sexual violence in the public realm have a profound effect on women’s and girls’ daily routines, lifestyles, and their emotional and physical health.

Love, Sex and Young People: How to be a Youth-Centred Organization

The A+ program was implemented by IPPF’s Member Associations in 16 countries across sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Central America. The goal was to increase access to sexual and reproductive health services and comprehensive sexuality education for young people, and to promote their sexual and reproductive health and rights. This report, guided by the unique insights of young people themselves, will contribute to shared learning on how best to implement a youth-centered approach across IPPF and beyond.

Injecting Drug Use among Under-18s: A Snapshot of Available Data

Not enough is known about the needs of young people who inject drugs or the risks they face, according to the first global report on the issue by Harm Reduction International (HRI). The report starts by asserting that these young people have very specific developmental, social and environmental vulnerabilities, including the risk of HIV and hepatitis C transmission and a lack of awareness of harm reduction and treatment services, as well as their own rights.

Improving the Health of Women and Adolescents: An Unfinished Agenda

This paper examines progress in the areas of women’s health and mortality, which were at the center of the ICPD Program of Action. It also addresses other issues in women’s health, including gender-based violence. Finally, the authors review health and mortality in adolescence and call for more attention during this phase of life, as it greatly influences wellbeing throughout adulthood.

Children and Youth in Africa: Annotated Bibliography

This annotated bibliography provides a summary of scholarly work published between 2001 and 2011 in both journals and books that specifically focus on children and youth in Africa. Topics included in the bibliography cover a range of subjects including fertility and sexuality, HIV and AIDS, parenting, media and popular culture as well as child labor, disabilities and rights. 

Adolescent Fertility since the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo

This report presents new estimates of the levels and trends in adolescent fertility worldwide from 1990-1995 to 2005-2010. It highlights key social and demographic factors underlying adolescent fertility, including early marriage, first sex, contraceptive use and education. This period coincides with assessments of progress in implementing the Programme of Action of the ICPD and the Millennium Development Goals, which include a focus on reducing early childbearing, expanding access to reproductive health and investing in the human capital of youth, especially girls.

YouthLens No. 40: Resources for Adolescents Living with HIV

This brief discusses resources that have become available in the past few years to support communities and health care providers in meeting the unique
physical, social and psychosocial needs—including sexual and reproductive health—of adolescents living with HIV.

YouthLens No. 39: Very Young Adolescents

Among the 1.8 billion youth worldwide, about one-third are very young adolescents (VYA), that is, those between the ages of 10 and 14 years old. Most sexual and reproductive health interventions, however, have focused on adolescents 15 and older, and even research has often excluded VYAs. This YouthLens explores emerging research about and evaluated programs for VYAs, and provides recommendations from a group of experts who attended a technical consultation hosted by the IYWG.

Why Measuring Child-Level Impacts Can Help Achieve Lasting Economic Change

The Child Protection in Crisis (CPC) Network and Supporting Transformation by Reducing Insecurity and Vulnerability with Economic Strengthening (STRIVE) have collaborated to produce Why Measuring Child-Level Impacts Can Help Achieve Lasting Economic Change. This paper presents an argument for the systematic monitoring and evaluation of child wellbeing related to economic strengthening efforts. Economic strengthening aims both to address the short-term needs of poor people and to enable entire communities to overcome poverty and live healthy, productive lives.

Why Measuring Child-Level Impacts Can Help Achieve Lasting Change

 This paper presents an argument for the systematic monitoring and evaluation of child wellbeing related to economic strengthening efforts. Economic strengthening aims both to address the short-term needs of poor people and to enable entire communities to overcome poverty and live healthy, productive lives. Growing evidence links children’s physical and psychological health with their future economic opportunities and potential. Until recently, the economic strengthening community has presumed that greater household economic welfare also leads to improved wellbeing for children.

Sports and the Making of Men: Transforming Gender Norms on the Playing Field

This MenEngage-UNFPA advocacy brief explores ideas on how to transform sport - an important part of the lives of most boys and many men - to encourage gender equitable attitudes and behaviors, to end harmful forms of masculinity, and to transform masculinity in positive ways. This brief has three parts. The first part examines the history of sport and the making of men and examines why and how sport has taken a central role in men's conceptions of masculinity.

A Review of Teenage Pregnancy in South Africa – Experiences of Schooling, and Knowledge and Access to Sexual & Reproductive Health Services

Approximately 30% of teenagers in South Africa report ever having been pregnant; the majority of these are unplanned. While this number has decreased over the past few decades, it is still unacceptably high. This report tries to be mindful of differing experiences of pregnancy and motherhood across the teen years. A major concern is to examine ways in which all pregnant teenagers and teenage mothers be supported to remain in school and how they can be supported in their dual role and responsibilities as a student and mother.

Reaching Young Married Couples in Bangladesh: An Underserved Population for Long-Acting Methods of Contraception

In Bangladesh, more than 70% of married adolescents become pregnant before their first anniversary, and the mean age at first pregnancy is 16.4. Young couples rarely use contraception before the birth of their first child. An 18-month project to provide young married couples with better information and services on family planning trained peers to be the main source of information for young men and women in the community and to serve as a link between the community and a facility.

A Mapping of Faith-based Responses to Violence against Women and Girls in the Asia-Pacific Region

This report presents findings from a mapping initiative that aimed to capture how faith-based organizations respond to violence against women and girls in the Asia-Pacific region. As a collaborative initiative between UNFPA and the Asia-Pacific Women Faith and Development Alliance (AP-WFDA), it sought to identify examples of strategies used by faith-based organizations. The report brings together the experiences of 58 organizations collected through an online survey, supplemented by in-depth interviews conducted with selected agencies.

Mapping HIV Services and Policies for Adolescents: A Survey of 10 Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

PEPFAR and USAID, in collaboration with UNICEF, supported AIDSTAR-One in conducting a mapping activity to identify HIV policies and services for adolescents in Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. This technical report summarizes AIDSTAR-One’s findings and is a resource for program planners and policymakers working to improve services and policies for HIV prevention, care, and treatment among adolescents and ALHIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

Lost in Transitions: Current Issues Faced by Adolescents Living with HIV in Asia Pacific

This report aims to document and capture some of the experiences of adolescents living with HIV as they disclose their HIV status, deal with life-long antiretroviral treatment (ART), move from pediatric to adult health care services, navigate sexuality and relationships and build their independent lives. It also seeks to offer insights into some of the unique issues adolescents living with HIV face, such as pervasive stigma and discrimination.

HIV and Adolescents: Guidance for HIV Testing and Counseling and Care for Adolescents Living with HIV

Adolescents (10-19 years) and young people (20-24 years) continue to be vulnerable, both socially and economically, to HIV infection despite efforts to date. These guidelines provide specific recommendations and expert suggestions -for national policy-makers and program managers and their partners and stakeholders -on prioritizing, planning and providing HIV testing, counseling, treatment and care services for adolescents.

The Girl Declaration

The Girl Declaration is a call to action for the post-2015 development agenda. Girls were left out of the original Millennium Development Goals. The Girl Declaration has been written to make sure that doesn't happen again. Bringing together the thinking of 508 girls living in poverty across the globe with the expertise of more than 25 of the world's leading development organizations, the Girl Declaration is a tool to stop poverty before it starts.

The Girl Consultation Research Toolkit

The Girl Consultation Toolkit is a guide for individuals or organizations who wish to speak directly to girls in poverty. It includes a selection of tools to help hear from girls, understand their lives, uncover the issues and challenges they face and gather their opinions on how they want the world to change. This toolkit provides guidance to set up a workshop, run activities and analyze findings. It can be adapted as required to suit different requirements. Each of the tools outlined can be used either together or on their own.

From Evidence to Policy: Addressing Gender-Based Violence against Women and Girls in Bangladesh

Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is widely recognized as a significant problem affecting women’s and children’s health and well-being throughout the world. The level of VAWG is very high in Bangladesh. About 60% of ever-married women of reproductive age report lifetime physical and/or sexual violence perpetrated by their husbands. The development of effective policies and programs to address VAWG remains challenging due to a lack of evidence on patterns and correlates of violence perpetration and on interventions that work.

Empowering People to Ensure a Sustainable Future for All

With this paper, UNFPA contributes proposals for the post-2015 development agenda. UNFPA advocates for stand-alone goals on gender equality as well as on adolescents and youth needs and rights. The position paper makes the case for specifically including universal access to sexual and reproductive health and rights as a target under a health goal and for considering national capacity in gathering relevant socio-demographic and health data as a target under a governance goal in a post-2015 development framework.

The Contracting World of Girls at Puberty: Violence and Gender-Divergent Access to the Public Sphere among Adolescents in South Africa

Participatory mapping was undertaken with single-sex groups of grade 5 and grade 8–9 children in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Wide gender divergence in access to the public sphere was found among grade 8–9 children. At grade 5, female self-defined community areas were equal to or larger in size than those of males in both sites. Community area depicted by urban grade 8–9 girls, however, was only 34 percent that of classmate boys and 41 percent that of grade 5 girls. Conversely, community area defined by grade 8–9 boys was 206 percent that of grade 5 boys.

Contraception for Adolescents in Low and Middle Income Countries - Needs, Barriers, and Access

Substantial numbers of adolescents experience the negative health consequences of early, unprotected sexual activity—unintended pregnancy, unsafe abortions, pregnancy-related mortality and morbidity and STIs including HIV—as well as its social and economic costs. Improving access to and use of contraceptives – including condoms - needs to be a key component of an overall strategy to preventing these problems.

Comprehensive Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control: A Healthier Future for Girls and Women

This WHO Guidance Note advocates for a comprehensive approach to cervical cancer prevention and control and is aimed at senior policy makers and program managers. It describes the need to deliver effective interventions across the female life course from adolescence through to adulthood. These include community education, social mobilization, HPV vaccination, screening, treatment and palliative care.

Child Marriage in South Asia: Realities, Responses and the Way Forward

Child marriage is a serious human rights crisis and one of the most pressing development concerns in the world today. Defined as marriage under the age of 18, child marriage disproportionately and negatively affects girls who are more likely to be married as children than boys. Currently more than 60 million girls and women are affected by child marriage globally. Child marriage is particularly pervasive across South Asia and Africa, where 50-70 percent of girls in some countries are married before the age of 18.

It’s About More than Just Sex: Curricula and Other Educational Materials on Youth Sexual and Reproductive Health

Compiled by FHI 360 on behalf of the IYWG and updated in 2013, this list contains high-quality curricula and supplemental materials designed to improve youth sexual and reproductive health. Examples of adult- and peer-led (or youth-led) curricula are included to provide youth-serving organizations with user-friendly educational resources which can be used in a variety of program settings. Published by internationally recognized global health or academic organizations as well as country-based programs, all materials are available online or by mail free of charge or at minimal cost.

We Can’t Wait -A Report on Sanitation and Hygiene for Women and Girls

Poor sanitation is an issue that can affect everyone but women and girls are often the most at risk. The result is widespread death and disease – especially among children – and social marginalization. Poor sanitation exposes females to the risk of assault, and when schools cannot provide clean, safe toilets girls’ attendance drops. The international community acknowledged the importance of sanitation by including targets in the Millennium Development Goals. The 2015 deadline is approaching quickly but the crisis is far from resolved. 

Towards an AIDS-free Generation—Children and AIDS: Sixth Stocktaking Report

 Stocktaking reports on children and AIDS are the flagship publications of the Unite for Children, Unite against AIDS campaign. The Sixth Stocktaking Report is informed by new data on the HIV epidemic. These data include information on the trends and current status of HIV and AIDS among children and adolescents. They also include new modelling work to evaluate how different HIV-related interventions among children and adolescents can help slow and reverse the epidemic, including the cost of service delivery.

Toolkit for Transition of Care and Other Services for Adolescents Living with HIV: Kenya Pilot Evaluation

In 2012, AIDSTAR-One created the Toolkit for Transition of Care and Other Services for Adolescents Living with HIV to provide tools and guidance to health care providers and community care providers as well as to the adolescents and their families and caregivers. To test the usefulness of this toolkit and to gather information on how to adapt it to increase its utility, a pilot program was carried out from October 2012 through April 2013 at four health facilities in Kenya.

The Sexual and Reproductive Rights of Women and Girls with Disabilities

This briefing paper examines the sexual and reproductive rights of women and girls with disabilities in the context of the future development agenda. It deliberately focuses on women and girls with disabilities in recognition that they are generally more likely to experience infringements of their sexual and reproductive rights given the physiology of human reproduction and the gendered social, legal and economic context in which sexuality, fertility, pregnancy and parenthood occur.

Motherhood in Childhood: Facing the Challenge of Adolescent Pregnancy

Every day in developing countries, 20,000 girls below age 18 give birth. Nine in 10 of these births occur within marriage or a union. This has consequences on the health, education, employment and rights of an untold millions of girls. What are the challenges of adolescent pregnancy, and what can we do to ensure that girls have a healthy and safe transition into adulthood? This 2013 State of the World Population report is available in English, French, Spanish, Russian and Arabic.

Invest in Adolescents and Young People - It Pays

The 2013 Women Deliver conference made a strong call for investing in the health and development of adolescents and young people. It highlighted the unique problems faced by adolescent girls and young women—some of the most vulnerable and neglected individuals in the world—and stressed the importance of addressing their needs and rights, not only for their individual benefit, but also to achieve global goals such as reducing maternal mortality and HIV infection.

Double Jeopardy: Adolescent Girls and Disasters

The seventh annual “Because I am a Girl” report examines how adolescent girls fare in disasters, and why. Using original research, reviews of secondary material, and the voices of girls themselves, the authors show how humanitarian and developments efforts work before, during and after disasters, both in the urgency of a disaster response, and in the gaps between. 

Adolescent Pregnancy: A Review of the Evidence

This report presents an update on pregnancies among adolescents. The report covers trends during the last 10 years and variations across geographic, cultural and economic settings, as well as interventions available to minimize pregnancy among adolescents. The report lists evidence for these programmatic approaches, and challenges that nations will have to deal with in the next 20 years given current population momentum.

A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluating Adolescent Reproductive Health Programs

Monitoring and evaluation is critical for institutionalizing and strengthening the evidence base surrounding the effectiveness of adolescent reproductive health programs. However, many programs do not have the expertise to carry out some aspects of program evaluation, particularly those that require using sensitive measurement indicators that target vulnerable populations.

Young People Today Time to Act now: Why Adolescents and Young People Need Comprehensive Sexuality Education and Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in Eastern and Southern Africa

With an estimated 50 young people –mostly women and girls –becoming infected with HIV every hour, Eastern and Southern Africa remain the epicenter of the global HIV epidemic. This report was developed to provide a regional assessment of the current status of HIV and sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for adolescents and young people, and to provide an evidence base for discussion related to policy change and programming for adolescents and young people in the Eastern and Southern Africa region.

The Ishraq Program for Out-of-school Girls: from Pilot to Scale-up

Launched in 2001, Ishraq, which means “sunrise” in Arabic, seeks to improve the educational, health, and social opportunities for vulnerable girls in rural Upper Egypt. The Ishraq program in Upper Egypt is one of the first examples of a girl-centered program designed around rigorous evidence regarding the lives of poor out-of-school girls. The program identifies needs then fills those needs by building the social, health and economic assets girls require to thrive and become successful adults.

The Insights Toolkit: Practical Notes for Working with Girls in Poverty from the Nike Foundation

The Nike Foundation has prepared this guide which summarizes the methodology they have used over the past eight years in their work with girls. They believe that really understanding girls is key to designing effective interventions and that the power of insights can change how poverty is solved. They believe an insight is not an observation or a statistic; it is a fundamental truth about human behavior. The right insight can change how people think about an issue and open up a world of new solutions.

The Adolescent Girls Vulnerability Index: Guiding Strategic Investment in Uganda

The Adolescent Girls Vulnerability Index (AGI) has been developed based on a growing recognition of the need to channel resources to vital—and highly vulnerable and vastly underserved—populations of adolescent girls in Uganda specifically, and in East and Southern Africa in general. The AGI aims to be a summary indicator that can serve as an advocacy tool to draw attention to adolescent girls. It is a tool that will inform policy-making and macro-level resource allocation and will be an instrument of planning and monitoring progress.

Protecting Children from the Unintended Consequences of Economic Strengthening Programs

It is a common belief that programs designed to increase household income will automatically have positive effects on children. In fact, the evidence shows that this assumption cannot be taken for granted. In some cases, the interventions that increase household economic activities actually lead to greater problems for children and youth, such as more child labor and less school attendance, particularly in the short term. 

I Know. I Want. I Dream

More than 500 girls from 14 countries were asked to share their insights and perspectives with global decision-makers. This report synthesizes girls’ voices from around the world and argues that girls’ insights are crucial to designing effective global development policies.

Global Initiative on Out of School Children: National Survey on the Situation of Out-of-School Children and Adolescents

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, an alarming 7.3 million children are out of school, according to this recent report by UNESCO and UNICEF. The report points to poverty, conflict, displacement, sexual violence, child marriage and lack of school infrastructure standing in the way of education.

Breaking the Silence on Violence against Indigenous Girls, Adolescents and Young Women: A Call to Action Based on an Overview of Existing Evidence from Africa, Asia Pacific and Latin America

Violence against women and girls is a pervasive violation of human rights that persists worldwide and cuts across all socio-economic groups. This collaborative study aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the magnitude, nature and context of violence experienced specifically by indigenous girls, adolescents and young women.

A Review of Control-Comparison Interventions on Girls and Health

The explosion of programs aimed at improving adolescent girls' health in the developing world in recent years has almost certainly been beneficial, but do we really know how girls are faring in the wake of these various interventions? Good intentions are needed, but they do not always result in improved outcomes. The time is right to assess the impact of girl-focused programs. Through a structured, in-depth literature review, the authors of this paper on low and middle-income countries shed light on what we have learned and what we still need to learn. 

Youth Policy Toolkit (updated)

This site contains more than 100 full-text policies addressing YRH from countries across the world. The Toolkit also contains policy making resources, including case studies, expert interviews, key publications and tools, and helpful links. The newly updated K4Health Youth Policy Toolkit provides young people, donors, policy makers, advocates, program managers, communications professionals, and others with a carefully selected collection of state-of-the-art resources and tools for developing, strengthening, implementing, and assessing youth reproductive health policy worldwide. 

Young Women and Abortion: Avoiding Legal and Policy Barriers

This resource is designed to help advocates and policymakers promote laws and policies that support access to safe abortion for young women. Parental involvement requirements in law or policy are common barriers that push young women toward illegal and often unsafe abortion.

Untying the Knot: Exploring Early Marriage in Fragile States

In this report, World Vision found that of the 25 nations with the highest rates of child marriage, the majority were countries affected by conflict or natural disasters. The report also cites “poverty, weak legislative frameworks and enforcement, harmful traditional practices, gender discrimination and lack of alternative opportunities for girls (especially education)” as other driving factors of child marriages. 

Understanding and Empowering Adolescent Girls

This article provides a brief summary of the larger report, Girls on the Move. The report is the first of its kind to examine the social and economic determinants of internal migration to urban areas for adolescent girls in developing countries, as well as the links between migration, risk, and opportunity. Migration can certainly be risky. But the research conducted for Girls on the Move shows that given the right support and protection, adolescent girls’ migration can increase their autonomy, opportunities, and economic and social well-being.

Study Highlights Data Needed to Reduce Child Marriage

This article summarizes a study by the Population Council that highlights the unique vulnerability of Ethiopia’s youngest married girls and calls for specific programs to delay marriage among those under age 15—a population of young girls often missed by current programs aimed at curbing child marriage. 

Solutions to End Child Marriage: Summary of the Evidence

 This policy brief highlights five evidence-based strategies identified by ICRW to delay or prevent child marriage: 1) Empower girls with information, skills and support networks; 2) Provide economic support and incentives to girls and their families; 3) Educate and rally parents and community members; 4) Enhance girls' access to a high-quality education; and 5) Encourage supportive laws and policies.

Scattered Dreams, Broken Promises: An Assessment of the Links between Girls’ Empowerment and Gender-based Violence in the Kyaka II Refugee Settlement, Uganda

The Women’s Refugee Commission (WRC) conducted research in the Kyaka II Refugee Settlement in southwestern Uganda in October 2012 to explore the relationship between the empowerment of adolescent refugee girls and the prevention of gender-based violence.

Positive Connections: Leading Information and Support Groups for Adolescents Living with HIV

Positive Connections: Leading Information and Support Groups for Adolescents Living with HIV is a unique guide that provides facilitators with background information about the needs of ALHIV, tips for starting an adult-led information and support group, and 14 sessions to follow in a group setting. The goal of the guide is to help ALHIV:
  • Understand their HIV diagnosis and participate in the management of their care and treatment.
  • Learn that many young people live healthy and productive lives while living with HIV.

Youth Issues Papers

Youth Issues Papers are in-depth reviews of critical topics regarding youth reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. They include an analysis of the issue, a literature review, case studies, lessons learned, and ideas about criteria for best practices. 

Document de Travail No. 1 sur les Jeunes. Stratégies d'intervention adaptées aux besoins des jeunes

Ce document fait l'exposé de programmes qui ont aidé les jeunes de pays en développement à adopter des comportements plus sains.

Youth Research Working Papers

These papers provide an in-depth description of research projects undertaken by FHI/YouthNet, with an introduction, methodology, results, discussion, recommendations, tables, and figures:

Youth Research Working Paper No. 9. Impact of Youth Peer Education Programs: Final Results from an FHI/YouthNet Study in Zambia

This study sought to determine the effect of youth peer education (YPE) programs on sexual and reproductive health behaviors among youth. Phase 1 (in Zambia and the Dominican Republic, summarized in Youth Research Working Paper No. 3) identified core elements believed to be important for effective and sustainable YPE programs. Phase 2, conducted only in Zambia, assessed the interrelationships among program inputs, outputs, exposure and outcomes. Instruments developed in Phase 1 were used to measure inputs and outputs in five YPE programs in Zambia.

Youth Research Working Paper No. 8. Early Sexual Debut, Sexual Violence, and Sexual Risk-taking among Pregnant Adolescents and Their Peers in Jamaica and Uganda

This study first identified contextual factors and circumstances that influence pregnancy among young adolescents (15-17 years old in Jamaica and Uganda) and then in Jamaica used a quantitative case-control study to measure the relationships between sexual debut, sexual coercion/violence, and sexual risk-taking among pregnant adolescents and their never pregnant, but sexually active peers. The study found an association between pregnancy and early sexual debut but not between pregnancy and sexual violence.

Youth Research Working Paper No. 7. Operations Research Study to Improve Postabortion Care (PAC) Services among Adolescents in the Dominican Republic

Postabortion Care (PAC) This paper summarizes an operations research study to improve the PAC counseling and contraceptive uptake among adolescent PAC patients seeking services in the Dominican Republic. Before the study and intervention, few patients left with contraception; after the intervention, 40 percent of patients who wished to delay pregnancy left with a contraceptive method, with no significant differences found between the adolescents and older women in terms of contraceptive uptake. 

Youth Research Working Paper No. 6. Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Services for Youth and Linkages with Other Reproductive Health Services in Haiti

This report describes the health needs of youth seeking VCT services in several types of clinics in Haiti. The study found that clinics need to increase the availability of contraception to youth, by training providers in family planning methods. The 49-page report includes 26 tables and three figures.

Youth Research Working Paper No. 5. Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Services for Youth and Linkages with Other Reproductive Health Services in Tanzania

This report describes the health needs of youth seeking VCT services, including contraceptive services. It also reports on the quality of care offered to youth at these clinics and the relationship between youth's intended and actual risk behaviors following VCT. The 40-page report includes 14 tables and five figures.

Youth Research Working Paper No. 4. An Assessment of Services for Adolescents in Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Programs

This report describes the study results conducted at four antenatal care clinics with PMTCT programs in Kenya. The study identified and evaluated strategies for meeting youth's HIV and reproductive health needs within PMTCT services, based on assessments of HIV/AIDS, PMTCT, and contraceptive related knowledge, awareness, and attitudes that influenced service use. The 51-page report includes 27 tables and four figures.

Youth Research Working Paper No. 3. Formative Research on Youth Peer Education Program Productivity and Sustainability

This 64-page paper discusses the first phase of a two-part study, which identified core elements of programs through an examination of program dynamics, activities, costs, and outputs in two countries. Based on this data, the first phase developed frameworks and eight checklists to use in assessing youth peer education effectiveness and sustainability.

Youth Research Working Paper No. 2. Impact of Sex and HIV Education Programs on Sexual Behaviors of Youth in Developing and Developed Countries

This 45-page paper discusses findings from a review of 83 evaluations of sex and HIV education programs. The analysis found substantial positive impact on sexual behaviors in more than two-thirds of the evaluations and identified 17 characteristics of the most effective curricula used in the programs evaluated. More information on this review is available, including links to data sheets on each of the 83 evaluations.

Youth Research Working Paper No. 1. Iringa Youth Behavior Survey? Findings and Report

This paper reports on a population-based, household survey of youth ages 13 to 24. It provides a comprehensive picture of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of youth regarding HIV and reproductive health issues. It includes 13 recommendations on protective strategies, gender norms, knowledge-behavior gap, and services. The narrative discussions of the findings include data in 36 tables and 27 figures.

Community Involvement Resources

The community involvement resources consist of four documents produced in partnership with CARE. They offer guidance for conducting participatory assessments, an annotated guide to technical resources, a report of a technical consultation on community involvement, and a literature review.

Community Involvement in Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention: A Review and Analysis of the Literature

This literature review helped inform the technical consultation convened by YouthNet (see item III). It summarizes key terms and concepts from the literature, including issues on operations, evaluation, impact assessment results, challenges, and emerging themes.

The Role of Community Involvement in Improving Youth Reproductive Health and Preventing HIV among Young People: Report of a Technical Consultation

This report of a two-day technical consultation summarizes challenges, lessons learned from promising projects, knowledge and practice gaps, and recommendations for future practice. It suggests guidelines for community involvement in youth reproductive health and HIV prevention at all stages of a project cycle.

An Annotated Guide to Technical Resources for Community Involvement in Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention Programs

This compilation of resources includes documents, manuals, and toolkits that provide advice, approaches, and tools for involving community members, including youth. In the online version of the guide, the URLs (Web addresses) for the resources are actual links. Because URLs and materials offered on Web sites sometimes change, the online version of this document will be updated from time to time and will therefore be somewhat different than the printed version.

Engaging Communities in Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Projects: A Guide to Participatory Assessments

This comprehensive guide outlines how to conduct participatory assessments with youth and community members for improved youth reproductive health and HIV prevention. Drawing on YouthNet's experience in Namibia, Tanzania, and Ethiopia, it reviews youth participation, guidelines for training community participants, and suggestions for adapting the methods and tools for use at other project stages.

Peer Education Toolkit

The Peer Education Toolkit is a group of five resources designed to help program managers and master trainers of peer educators. The toolkit is based on research and evidence from the field as well as local examples and experiences. They are designed to be adapted locally as needed. The toolkit includes the following resources:

Assessing the Quality of Youth Peer Education Programmes

Assessing the Quality of Youth Peer Education Programmes is a series of checklists with guidance for program managers to use to assess a peer education program. Developed through YouthNet's peer education research project, these evidence-based checklists can be used to gather the most essential information for determining how a peer education project can best function and can be compared over time and across programs.

Performance Improvement: A Resource for Youth Peer Education Managers

Performance Improvement: A Resource for Youth Peer Education Managers is a tool that managers can use to improve the quality of their programs. It builds on quality improvement materials from other fields, providing a tool for self-assessment, group resolution, and action planning with sample activities from the field. Also included is a section on program management basics with common examples from peer education projects.

Theatre-Based Techniques for Youth Peer Education: A Training Manual

Theatre-Based Techniques for Youth Peer Education: A Training Manual is a 100-page training manual that provides an overview of using theater in health education. It contains four peer theater training workshops, a series of theater games and exercises that can be used in trainings, and information on developing and building a peer theater program.

Standards for Peer Education Programmes

Standards for Peer Education Programmes is an 80-page spiral manual that can help program managers standardize practices in peer education programs. It includes a checklist of 52 standards in five categories: planning, recruitment and retention, training and supervision, management and oversight, and monitoring and evaluation, with tips, lessons learned, and other information on each of the 52. A four-page version is also available for managers to take with them on site visits.

The Training of Trainers Manual

The Training of Trainers Manual is a curriculum tool to prepare master-level peer education trainers. The manual uses participatory techniques based on a variety of theoretical frameworks to ensure that future trainers are skilled and confident in their abilities to train peer educators and serve as informed resources for their peers.

Integrating Youth into Health Programs: Considerations for Implementing the Youth in Development Policy

"Integrating Youth into Health Programs: Considerations for Implementing the Youth in Development Policy," is intended to assist global health staff and health officer to understand the importance of addressing the health needs of youth in their programming, and it suggests tools that staff can use to assess the needs of youth and to develop programs. This document is the first of an occasional series of resources and tools to be developed on youth health programming.

National Response Efforts to Address Sexual Violence and Exploitation against Children in Lesotho: A Desktop Study

Scant data exist on the prevalence of violence against children worldwide. However, available information, including the United Nations Secretary-General’s Study on Violence against Children, shows that violence against children is a global problem. This desktop study aims to glean from published and grey literature the extent of sexual violence and exploitation against children in Lesotho. The goal of this study is to better understand the government of Lesotho's national response efforts to reduce violence against children.

Integrating a Youth-based Stigma and Discrimination Reduction Curriculum in Higher Education

Stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV are common among young people. Yet there are few opportunities for youth to be exposed to interventions that address the key drivers of stigma and discrimination, namely lack of awareness of stigma and its harmful consequences, social judgment and fear of infection through casual contact. This project demonstrated that higher education can be an effective entry point for stigma reduction, by working with several groups and environments, in this case the faculty, students and college.

Child Exploitation and the FIFA World Cup: A Review of Risks and Protective Interventions

This review is intended to inform action in countries that host major sporting events and to provide some suggestions on how hosting countries can avoid past pitfalls and mistakes in relation to child exploitation, especially economic and sexual exploitation. It also acts as a call to action by those responsible for commissioning and staging major sporting events, such as FIFA and the international Olympic committee, to anticipate, prepare for and adopt risk mitigation strategies and interventions.

Breaking the Silence: Child Sexual Abuse in India

This 82-page report examines how current government responses are falling short, both in protecting children from sexual abuse and treating victims. Many children are effectively mistreated a second time by traumatic medical examinations and by police and other authorities who do not want to hear or believe their accounts.

Are You on the Right Track? Six Steps to Measure the Effects of Your Programme Activities

This workbook is a hands-on instruction manual for developing an outcome monitoring and evaluating (M&E) plan that fits an organization’s specific situation. The workbook presents six steps to set up a tailor-made plan. An outcome M&E plan enables an organization to measure the achievements of activities related to sexual and reproductive health and rights and HIV prevention. The results will provide insight in the effects of work activities and possible program changes. The manual is also available in French. 

Afghanistan: Ending Child Marriage and Domestic Violence

The rights of women and girls, including freedom from child marriage and domestic violence, have generated emotionally charged debates in Afghanistan over the past decade. Such debates often focus on personal opinions and experiences, or on the varied interpretations of religious teachings on marriage. This brochure provides basic facts about the impact of child marriage and domestic violence on the lives of Afghan girls and women, and on the broader economic development of the country. At the end, the document provides recommendations for needed reform. 

Summary of Recommendations from the 2013 Interagency Youth Working Group Meeting and Technical Consultation

This document provides highlights of recommendations from the 2013 IYWG meeting and is intended to guide future programing, research and investment at international, country and local levels for very young adolescents.

Summary of Methodologies to Measure Prevention of HIV/AIDS among Young People

This document provides a summary table of the major tools that have been commonly used to measure prevention of HIV/AIDS among youth. This table has been designed to help program planners, policy makers, and others interested in understanding the status of youth HIV risk and youth HIV prevention programs at the national, regional, or local level. For each methodology, this document lists the most commonly used data collection tools to evaluate youth programs.

Status report: Adolescents and Young People in Sub-Saharan Africa

PRB, in collaboration with UNFPA, developed a specialized interactive map and publication about young people in sub-Saharan Africa. The interactive map and report present available data for 20 specific indicators, disaggregated by age and sex when possible. The publication provides an overview of key data findings about population, education, employment, sexual and reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, and gender and social protection issues, and has 45 country profiles.

Situational Analysis on Post-Rape Care of Children in Lesotho

AIDSTAR-One conducted a situational analysis to determine factors that support or hinder effective care for children who have experienced sexual violence and exploitation in Lesotho. The analysis will provide information on how to move forward with activities for children who have experienced sexual violence and exploitation. The activity was designed to prioritize learning about clinical care within the broader package of services needed by children who have experienced sexual violence.

Ending Child Marriage in the Arab Region

This policy brief presents the latest data on child marriage in the Arab region, which includes members of the League of Arab States (stretching from Morocco to Oman). It explains how ending child marriage would help countries achieve their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to combat poverty and improve health and quality of life for all.

Core Indicators for OVC Program Evaluation

This set of 12 child and three household well-being indicators/suggested survey questions is recommended for use in evaluations of programs for orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC). These questions do not form a composite indicator of child well-being, and this set of questions is not a stand-alone data collection tool. It is recommended that this minimum set of indicators/questions be integrated into a comprehensive data collection tool in upcoming OVC program evaluations and other related surveys.

Child, Caregiver & Household Well-being Survey Tools for Orphans & Vulnerable Children Programs

This manual describes the purpose of the orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) program evaluation tools, including when to use these tools, and how to use the tools. The manual also includes information on how the tools have been used to date, and how data generated from them can be used to support program planning and management. In the appendices, a question-by-question breakdown of all three survey tools is provided.

Assessment Report on Post-Rape Care for Children in Mozambique

Sexual violence and exploitation against children is steeped in contextual determinants, such as the socio-economic development and legacy of war-time sexual violence, the intersections of HIV and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), gender relations in Mozambique, and the social vulnerability of children to sexual and economic exploitation. This assessment focused on current availability and practices of post-rape care (PRC) for children in two provinces of Mozambique, Zambezia and Sofala, and in the capital city of Maputo.

Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Programs in Humanitarian Settings: An In-depth Look at Family Planning Services

In humanitarian settings, child-bearing risks are compounded for adolescents, due to increased exposure to forced sex, and reduced availability of and sensitivity to adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. At the same time, adolescents in humanitarian settings will have similar needs and desire for sexual and reproductive health information and services as their peers in non-crisis settings.

Teen Talk

The sub-Saharan Africa edition of Teen Talk, a question and answer guide for HIV-positive adolescents, was adapted from the Botswana version, published in 2010 by the Botswana-Baylor Children's Clinical Centre of Excellence Teen Club Program, and the original version, which was published in the United States in 2004.

Reducing Societal Discrimination against Adolescent Girls

Social norms are individuals' perceptions about which attitudes and behaviors are typical or desirable in their community. By working with these norms we can reduce societal discrimination against adolescent girls in the developing world without alienating communities. This paper provides a critical evaluation of the evidence available on how social norms can be used to promote behavior change.

Preventing Early Pregnancy and Poor Reproductive Outcomes: A Toolkit

Nearly 16 million girls between 15 and 19 years old give birth annually, almost all of them in developing countries. After a systematic review of the evidence, WHO developed the guidelines, Preventing Early Pregnancy and Poor Reproductive Outcomes among Adolescents in Developing Countries, which focus on key actions that aim to reduce the number of adolescent pregnancies in developing countries.

Landscape Analysis of the Adolescent Girl Field

At the end of 2012, the United Nations Foundation launched a comprehensive learning and planning process to examine the environment in which it operates and contributes, assess its current strategy and progress, and map potential options for meaningful and effective adolescent girl programs. As part of this process, an external landscape analysis was produced to identify the current gaps and opportunities in the adolescent girl field.

Investments in Adolescent Girls' Physical and Financial Assets

For adolescent girls living in poverty, the ability to own and safely control assets can contribute to improved livelihoods and give them a pathway out of poverty. From natural resource capital to political capital, assets can be particularly important for adolescent girls as a means through which they can invest in their own present and future wellbeing as they move through adolescence and into adulthood.

Financial Education Curriculum for the Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program

Zambian girls are faced with social isolation, economic vulnerability, and lack of appropriate health information and services—factors that prevent a healthy transition from girlhood into womanhood. They are faced with high rates of gender-based violence and unsafe sex—increasing their risk for unwanted pregnancy, HIV infection, and school dropout. This leads to a lack of economic resources and income-generating options, and a general lack of agency in shaping their lives.

Health and Life Skills Curriculum for the Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program

Zambian girls are faced with social isolation, economic vulnerability, and lack of appropriate health information and services—factors that prevent a healthy transition from girlhood into womanhood. They are faced with high rates of gender-based violence and unsafe sex—increasing their risk for unwanted pregnancy, HIV infection, and school dropout. This leads to a lack of economic resources and income-generating options, and a general lack of agency in shaping their lives.

Cue Cards for Counseling Adolescents on Contraception

This set of cue cards is designed to help a range of community- and facility-based providers to counsel adolescents and young people on their contraceptive options. The cue cards address combined oral contraceptives, progestin-only pills, emergency contraception, male and female condoms, injectables, implants, intrauterine devices, and the lactational amenorrhea method. Providers can use the front side of the cards to give information about all available options and, after the adolescent chooses a method, turn to the back side to give instruction on use of that specific method.

A Review of Evidence on Multi-Sectoral Interventions to Reduce Violence against Girls

The experience of sexual or physical violence during adolescence can dramatically change the direction of a girl's life. It raises the possibility of poor mental health, suicide, unwanted pregnancy, substance abuse, gynecological complications, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of programming aimed at girls in developing countries and to assess their effectiveness.

A Review of Control-Comparison Interventions on Girls and Health in Low and Middle-Income Countries

The explosion of programs aimed at improving adolescent girls' health in the developing world in recent years has almost certainly been beneficial, but do we really know how girls are faring in the wake of these various interventions? Good intentions are needed, but they do not always result in improved outcomes. The time is right to assess the impact of girl-focused programs. Through a structured, in-depth literature review, the authors of this paper on low and middle-income countries shed light on what we have learned and what we still need to learn.

UNICEF podcast: Girls advocate for girls' education and gender equality

Three young women from different parts of the world, but with very similar goals, met to talk about their passion for promoting girls’ rights. Linh, 20, from Viet Nam, Marcela, 17, from El Salvador and Hakima, 13, from Uganda were Plan International young delegates for the 57th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, held at United Nations Headquarters.

Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: Health, Access, and HIV

In every world region, men who have sex with men (MSM) face significantly higher rates of HIV than the general population. Young people are also at increased risk for HIV, comprising over 40% of new HIV infections worldwide. Young MSM (YMSM) face the heightened risks of both populations, as well as a number of vulnerabilities that are unique to YMSM. This policy brief examines HIV risk factors and access to services among YMSM using data from the Global Forum on MSM and HIV’s 2012 Global Men’s Health and Rights survey.

Unspeakable Crimes against Children: Sexual Violence in Conflict

In a disturbing new report, Save the Children has collated figures and testimonies on sexual abuse of children from a range of countries affected by conflict over the past decade, including Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia and Colombia. Reliable data on the issue is limited, as much sexual abuse goes unreported, but, taken together, the figures collated in the report indicate that children frequently make up the majority of sexual abuse victims in war and its aftermath. Also available in Spanish and French. 

Transforming Gender Norms among Very Young Adolescents: An Innovative Intervention and Evaluation in Nepal

Because attitudes and behaviors that lead to gender equality begin to develop at a very young age, early adolescence presents a window of opportunity to intervene before individuals solidify their ideas about gender roles and norms. As an increasing number of development programs try to address the needs of very young adolescents during this critical time of development, it is important to consider how programs will monitor and evaluate their work. One challenge faced by programs is how to operationalize gender equity in ways that resonate with very young adolescents.

Out of the Shadows - Child Marriage and Slavery

This report reviews the literature available on child marriage to show that a potentially high proportion of children in marriage are in slavery. Despite a good deal of publicity around child marriage its links with slavery have received very little attention to date. As not all child marriage (involving under 18-year-olds) is slavery, the report outlines the relevant international slavery framework to help clarify when child marriage could amount to slavery.

Implants for Adolescents: An Option worth Considering for Healthy Timing and Spacing of Pregnancy

This brief discusses the long-acting contraceptive implant and its potential advantages for adolescents. The contraceptive implant is often considered for use in women who have chosen to stop childbearing or those who are unsure of whether they want any children in the future. However, implants can be appropriate for all women, including adolescents who want to delay or space childbearing to ensure healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy.

GREAT Scalable Toolkit

The Scalable Toolkit is a set of tools created to bring fun and engaging activities that transform gender and reproductive health outcomes through a three-stage process: review of relevant programs, extensive formative research with adolescents and the people who influence them, and a pretest of draft materials followed by revisions. The resulting GREAT toolkit is a collection of materials in English and two local languages (Acholi and Lango) to help adolescents and adults: 
  • Learn about their bodies, reproductive health, gender-based violence and gender roles

Girls on the Move: Adolescent Girls & Migration in the Developing World

Authored by the Population Council, this report illuminates the experiences of girls who relocate to urban areas to pursue work, education, and social opportunities unavailable to them in their natal homes. The report explores how migrant girls who successfully connect to urban resources and opportunities can be powerful agents of change, making them an important group for policy and programmatic attention.

Fear and Misconceptions about Sex among Adolescents Vertically-Infected with HIV in Tanzania

With increased access to HIV treatment throughout Africa, a generation of HIV positive children is now transitioning to adulthood while living with a chronic condition requiring lifelong medication, which can amplify the anxieties of adolescence. This qualitative study explored how adolescents in Tanzania with HIV experience their nascent sexuality, as part of an evaluation of a home-based care program.

Demystifying Data: A Guide to Using Evidence to Improve Young People’s Sexual Health and Rights

The Guttmacher Institute and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) have prepared a publication designed to make accessible and contextualize a wealth of data on adolescent sexual health and rights in 30 countries, and to provide guidance on how to apply the data to advocacy, education and service provision efforts. The guide is designed to be a resource for youth advocates, sexuality educators and service providers as well as others working to advance the sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people around the world.

Adolescents and Long Acting Reversible Contraception: Implants and Intrauterine Devices

Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC)—intrauterine devices and the contraceptive implant—are safe and appropriate contraceptive methods for most women and adolescents. The LARC methods are top-tier contraceptives based on effectiveness, with pregnancy rates of less than 1% per year for perfect use and typical use. These contraceptives have the highest rates of satisfaction and continuation of all reversible contraceptives. Adolescents are at high risk of unintended pregnancy and may benefit creased access to LARC methods.

Addressing Comprehensive Needs of Adolescent Girls in India: A Potential for Creating Livelihoods

Strengthening the economic potential of girls is a critical approach for economic development. Unfortunately there has been little analysis of programs that address the multiple needs of adolescent girls, including enhancing their livelihood potential by building their economic agency. This report highlights findings from a scoping study to understand the state of the field of adolescent programming in India and to inform the design of future comprehensive programs that address both the productive and reproductive dimensions of girls’ lives.

A Global HIV Stigma Reduction Framework Adapted and Implemented in Five Settings in India. Summary Report

To support India's National AIDS Control Programme (NACP), ICRW and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have adapted an existing global HIV stigma reduction framework for the Indian context and pilot tested the framework in five settings in India. This report synthesizes the lessons learned from the process, including the feasibility and relevance of the framework for use by the NACP and other global stakeholders in informing stigma reduction interventions and measurement.

Violence against Children in Kenya: Findings from a 2010 National Survey

The 2010 Kenya Violence against Children Study (VACS) is the first national survey of violence against both female and male children in Kenya. The survey is the most up-to-date national assessment of households covering 1,306 females and 1,622 males aged between 13 and 24 years. The Kenya VACS was designed to yield lifetime and current experiences of emotional, physical and sexual violations for female and male children from the following age groups:
  • 18- to 24-year-olds who experienced acts of violence prior to age 18 (lifetime events).

The World's Youth

The Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights of Young People in India: A Review of the Situation

This paper summarizes the sexual and reproductive health situation of young people in India, sheds light on those sub-populations of young people who are most vulnerable to adverse sexual and reproductive outcomes, and assesses the barriers that compromise the sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people at the individual and family levels, as well as at the health system level.

The Reproductive Health of Young People in Egypt

Data for this brief are drawn from the Survey of Young People in Egypt (SYPE), which provides data collected from a nationally representative sample of young people aged 10-29 on the five key life transitions of education, work, family formation, health, and civic and political participation. A total of 15,029 young people (6,949 males and 8,080 females) from 11,372 families in both rural and urban settings, including informal housing areas, participated in this study.

Technical Considerations for PEPFAR Programs: Children and Adolescents Who Have Experienced Sexual Violence

These technical considerations and accompanying job aids serve as a guide for medical providers to address and respond to the unique needs and rights of children who have experienced sexual violence and exploitation. These resources focus on the delivery of clinical post-rape care services and include information on establishing services tailored to the unique needs of children, preparing for and performing a head-to-toe physical examination, conducting forensics evidence collection, and ensuring follow-up care and referrals for psychosocial and community support services.

School-Based Reproductive Health Education for Girls in Egypt

Starting in 2011, the Alexandria Regional Centre for Women’s Health and Development implemented a two-year program to raise awareness about the needs of adolescent girls for age-appropriate reproductive health information and to identify the existing gaps in the school system for meeting such needs. This MENA (Middle East and North Africa) Working Paper describes the program's results.

PRACHAR: Advancing Young People’s Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in India

Between July 2001 and August 2012, Pathfinder International implemented the Promoting Change in Reproductive Behavior of Adolescents (PRACHAR) project to improve the sexual and reproductive health status of adolescents and young couples in the state of Bihar in northern India. This technical brief summarizes the evolution of PRACHAR, describes the intervention model and key evaluation results that informed each phase, and highlights next steps for dissemination and advocacy based on 11 years of project learning.

Making Health Services Adolescent Friendly: Developing National Quality Standards for Adolescent Friendly Health Services

This guidebook sets out the public health rationale for making it easier for adolescents to obtain the health services that they need, including sexual and reproductive health services, to protect and improve their health and well-being. It defines “adolescent-friendly health services” from the perspective of quality and provides step-by-step guidance on developing quality standards for health service provision to adolescents.

Growing Up Safe and Healthy (SAFE) Baseline Studies from Bangladesh

The Growing up Safe and Healthy (SAFE) project seeks to provide context-specific strategies for vulnerable adolescents to build their social and health assets, with the eventual goal of improving their lifelong functional capabilities and well-being. Five reports have been prepared providing baseline information about the project: an introduction; knowledge, attitudes and practices; marriage and dowry; spousal violence; and violence against unmarried adolescents. 

Getting Real with Youth-friendly Services in Africa: Report of a Satellite Session at the XIX International AIDS Conference

There is a dearth of robust data on youth and HIV in Africa that are sufficiently disaggregated to adequately reveal specific HIV-related vulnerabilities, including stigma and discrimination faced by African youth. With an aim to fill this unfavorable gap, the Population Council implemented a mixed method cross-sectional comparative study with an analytical focus on the commonalities and differences across six focal African countries: Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Uganda.

Facts for Family Planning: A New Tool for Family Planning Knowledge and Awareness

This publication presents a comprehensive collection of information and messages for anyone who communicates to others about family planning. This booklet is a helpful resource for project staff who wants to increase their knowledge and awareness of family planning and will help to ensure that family planning messages are accurate and reflect the most current and updated information.

Engaging Coaches and Athletes in Fostering Gender Equity: Findings from the Parivartan Program in Mumbai, India

Parivartan, which means transformation, engaged cricket coaches and mentors in schools and the community to teach boys lessons about controlling aggression, preventing violence, and promoting respect. Based on the U.S.-based program, Coaching Boys into Men developed by Futures without Violence, the program engages coaches as positive role models and trains them to deliver messages to their male athletes about the importance of respecting women and understanding violence never equals strength.

Asia Child Marriage Initiative: Summary of Research Findings in Bangladesh, India and Nepal

Plan Asia invited ICRW to carry out a three-country study in Bangladesh, India and Nepal to inform its programming to prevent child marriage among girls. ICRW gathered qualitative data in each country from girls and boys, parents, community leaders and government officials. This report highlights these stakeholders' perceptions of the causes and consequences of child marriage and their views about the effectiveness of prevention strategies adopted by Plan, other NGOs and the government.

The Effect of Reproductive Health Communication Interventions on Age at Marriage and First Birth in Rural Bihar, India

This paper describes the results of a survey of participants in an adolescent education program implemented by the PRACHAR project in rural Bihar, India. The intervention aimed to increase age at marriage and first birth. Results from the survey show that the median age at marriage for females and for males was higher than in a comparison group, and the likelihood of having a first birth by the time of the survey was lower.

The Clinical Management of Children and Adolescents Who Have Experienced Sexual Violence: Technical Considerations for PEPFAR Programs

This document serves as a guide for primary health providers on the appropriate care of children and adolescents who have experienced sexual violence and exploitation and is based on current, evidence-based practices. Its recommendations should inform the efforts of PEPFAR implementers and other partners engaged in the clinical care of children as well as in HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment to strengthen community-based responses to children who have experienced sexual violence and exploitation.

Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Contraceptive Use among Young Women in Comparison with Older Women in Uganda

Much of the research literature about the use of family planning generalizes contraceptive use among all women, using age as a covariate. In Uganda, a country with divergent trends in modern family planning use among younger and older married women, the authors hypothesized that factors associated with contraceptive use operate in a fundamentally different way among married women in two age groups: 15-24 and 25-34. The hypothesis was tested using data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) in 2006 and 2011. This report documents the findings of the study.

Safe and Smart Savings for Vulnerable Girls in Kenya and Uganda: The Evolving Model, Lessons Learned, and Recommendations

In June 2008 the Population Council and MicroSave Consulting Ltd. started “Safe and Smart Savings Products for Vulnerable Adolescent Girls.” The three-part program aimed to reach vulnerable girls and help build assets through: 1) weekly group meetings led by a female mentor from their community, 2) financial education and basic health education, and 3) opening a formal savings account.

Increasing Opportunities to Delay Marriage and Promote Schooling: Results from a Baseline Survey in Rural Tanzania

This research brief describes girls’ experience of early marriage, education, and sexual behavior in the Tabora region of Tanzania. Located in the central-western part of the country, Tabora has an estimated population of more than 1,700,000 and is largely rural and devoted to agriculture. Findings from this brief are drawn from a baseline study conducted in 2011 in rural Uyui district of Tabora. More than 2,000 girls ages 12 to 17 were interviewed, as well as approximately 400 parents.

Improving Family Planning Service Delivery to Adolescents in Ghana: Evidence from Rural Communities in Central Ghana

In a previous study (the Obaapa Vitamin A study), female adolescents were recruited at age 10 to receive vitamin A supplements and were followed until the age of 15. Outcomes monitored in the course of the study were pregnancies, births, and birth outcomes (maternal and neonatal mortality). The current study conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews in the same administrative districts as the previous study, and combined these quantitative and qualitative data to help guide family planning service delivery to adolescents in the districts.

Youth-Friendly Postabortion Care Supplemental Training Module - Trainer's Manual

This is a supplemental training to be added to a comprehensive PAC Health Provider Training or used as a refresher training for practicing PAC providers.  The goal is to improve providers’ the ability to offer high-quality PAC services to adolescent clients ages 10-19. The training module is organized around the five essential elements of PAC: community and service provider partnerships, counseling, treatment of incomplete and unsafe abortion, contraceptive and family planning services, and reproductive and other health services.

The role of community involvement in improving reproductive health and preventing HIV among young people: report of a technical consultation, November 8-9, 2005.

Community involvement is considered an important element of most health and development programs. Local knowledge can inform program design when community members are involved from the beginning, and community action extends the reach and scope of interventions. Experience with programs in many sectors has shown that behavior change to improve people's health and well being requires changes in knowledge and attitudes not only at the individual level, but also at the community level.

HIV in the Land of Baseball and Bachata

In the Dominican Republic, two nongovernmental organizations offer comprehensive, integrated HIV and other health services that serve the special needs of high-risk and vulnerable populations: sex workers, migrant workers, young people, and people with disabilities. This case study describes their work, successes, challenges, and recommendations for future activities.

Growing Up in Rural India: An Exploration into the Lives of Younger and Older Adolescents in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh

Meri Life Meri Choice (MLMC) is a project that aims to reduce vulnerability to HIV among 10- to 19-year-old adolescent girls in rural areas.

Good Policy and Practice in HIV and Health Education. Booklet 7: Gender, Equality, HIV and Education

This booklet presents evidence and experience on gender, HIV, and education from a variety of perspectives in order to highlight the need to capture, synthesize and strengthen these required linkages. The booklet offers new thinking and emerging research alongside a series of case studies and examples of new and time-tested programs. The booklet includes discussion papers by leading practitioners and authors from a range of organizations and continents that explore issues and emerging evidence in greater depth. 

Filles Eveillées (“Girls Awakened”) A Pilot Program for Migrant Adolescent Girls in Domestic Service in Urban Burkina Faso

The Population Council designed an eight-month, 30-session intervention for migrant adolescent domestic workers in urban Burkina Faso. Filles Eveillées (“Girls Awakened”) aims to increase social capital; build adolescent girls’ skills in health (including sexual and reproductive health), life skills, and financial capabilities; and link girls to services. By providing girls with a safe space, access to peers, and a female mentor, this program seeks to increase domestic workers’ opportunities and reduce their vulnerabilities.

Engaging Men and Boys: A Brief Summary of UNFPA Experience and Lessons Learned

This report presents background about and rationale for engaging men and boys. It illustrates a range of initiatives that have engaged men and boys for the promotion of gender equality as well as sexual and reproductive health and rights.

Comprehensive Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control: A Healthier Future for Girls and Women

This WHO Guidance Note advocates for a comprehensive approach to prevention and control of cervical cancer and is aimed at senior policymakers and program managers. It describes the need to deliver effective interventions across the female lifespan. These interventions include community education; social mobilization; HPV vaccination; and cancer screening, treatment, and palliative care.

Bringing Youth-Friendly Services to Scale in Ethiopia

Stigma, service costs, and provider bias pose formidable barriers to Ethiopian young people's ability to access sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. To address these barriers, in 2005, Pathfinder International and the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) partnered to introduce and scale up youth-friendly services in the Ethiopian public health system. This technical brief analyzes the scale-up efforts to date.

Youth in India: Situation and Needs Policy Briefs

This series of 34 briefs addresses numerous aspects of young people’s lives in India, including participation in civil society, early marriage, sexuality education, gender-based violence, and many others. 

Violence against Adolescent Girls: A Fundamental Challenge to Meaningful Equality

Societies, rich and poor alike, are increasingly articulating commitments that guarantee girls safe and equal access to entitlements, services, social participation, and economic opportunities. Yet threats of violence in many forms—culturally affirmed (child marriage, female genital mutilation), intimate (carried out by family members and partners), casual (carried out by strangers), and planned (trafficking)—intervene to prevent girls from claiming their rights.

The Health of Vulnerable Adolescent Girls: A Strategic Investment for Double Return

The field of research and programs for adolescent girls has traditionally focused on sexuality, reproductive health, and behavior, neglecting the broader social and economic issues that underpin adolescent girls’ human rights, overall development, health, and well-being. Further, efforts to improve girls’ lives often spotlight those who control or influence their lives—parents, in-laws, boys, men, perpetrators—overlooking girls themselves.

Promoting Partner Reduction: Helping Young People Understand and Avoid HIV Risks from Multiple Partnerships

FHI 360, on behalf of USAID’s Interagency Youth Working Group (IYWG), and the late Dr. Doug Kirby of ETR Associates developed Promoting Partner Reduction: Helping Young People Understand and Avoid HIV Risks from Multiple Partnerships. This resource provides a set of evidence-based activities that help young people:
  • Learn why HIV spreads at different rates in monogamous, sequential, and concurrent sexual partnerships
  • Analyze the reasons why young people engage in multiple partnerships

Promoting Healthy, Save, and Productive Transitions to Adulthood

This series of 40 briefs outlines the challenges facing adolescents, Pop Council interventions, and policy and program recommendations.

Meeting the Needs of Very Young Adolescents (VYA) in Rwanda

Through the FAM Project, the Institute for Reproductive Health (IRH) developed innovative tools and approaches for increasing body literacy and fertility awareness among VYA girls and boys. In addition, IRH is contributing to the development of new methods for evaluating VYA programs that are tailored to adolescents’ unique intellectual development level. These methods use creative, participatory, game-based techniques that engage adolescents in information collection yet allow for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of programmatic outcomes. 

GIRLS FIRST! Perspectives on Girl-Centered Programming

Today, there are 600 million adolescent girls in the developing world. With the right help, they can become catalysts for positive change in their own lives as well as in their families, communities, and the world. This evidence-based series provides recommendations for how the field can quickly and effectively improve girls' lives—by giving them skills, knowledge, meaningful links to others, and a say in their own lives.

Facts about Adolescents from the Demographic and Health Survey: Statistical Tables for Program Planning

The Population Council emphasizes the need to look beyond the health sector in addressing adolescents' needs. One challenge to moving beyond the health sector has been that comprehensive data on adolescents in developing countries have not been easily accessible or compiled with this multisectoral view in mind. To fill this void, the Population Council began analyzing Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data in a way that could clearly illustrate the diversity of adolescents' lives.

Children in an Urban World

Hundreds of millions of children today live in urban slums, many without access to basic services. They are vulnerable to dangers ranging from violence and exploitation to the injuries, illnesses and death that result from living in crowded settlements atop hazardous rubbish dumps or alongside railroad tracks. And their situations – and needs – are often represented by aggregate figures that show urban children to be better off than their rural counterparts, obscuring the disparities that exist among the children of the cities.

Adolescent CycleSmart Kit

This information kit uses young protagonists, games and storytelling to convey information related to puberty and to tracking, understanding, and preparing for the menstrual cycle. Guidelines provide user-friendly tips and resources for parents, educators, and health providers on how to use the CycleSmart Kit to teach boys and girls about puberty and fertility. It is not recommended that Cycle Beads be used to prevent pregnancy in adolescents, as menstrual cycles are not often regular. 

Using Data to See and Select the Most Vulnerable Adolescent Girls

We need to invest in girls to build their key protective assets. But in order to make these investments, we must “see” these girls. Current youth policies and the data that accompany them block our view of these girls and treat young people as a homogenous group. But the skills and experiences of young people, even in the same community, can vary considerably. By not recognizing how adolescent capacities and opportunities vary by subgroup, these policies have often failed to direct resources to vulnerable and hard-to-reach adolescents.

Teen Talk – A Guide for Positive Living

The Botswana edition of Teen Talk, a question and answer guide for HIV-positive adolescents, was adapted from the original version published in the United States by Weiner and Wood in 2004. Teen Talk covers a variety of topics including ARVs, adherence, friendship, nutrition, exercise, reproductive health, positive prevention, multiple concurrent partnerships, safe male circumcision, prevention of mother to child transmission, emotions and disclosure.

SADC Regional Assessment Report of Policies and Programmes on Child and Adolescent HIV, TB and Malaria

The Southern African Development Community, (SADC), is developing the Minimum Standards for Child and Adolescent HIV, TB and Malaria Continuum of Care, a guideline document that establishes the minimum package of services that Member States should have to achieve a common response in the region. The first step of this initiative was to identify the existing policies and programming frameworks in the area of child and adolescent HIV, TB and malaria, and appraise the extent to which these are integrated and harmonized in the SADC region.

Menstrual Health Matters

Menstrual Hygiene Matters is an essential resource for improving menstrual hygiene for women and girls in lower- and middle-income countries. Nine modules and toolkits cover key aspects of menstrual hygiene in different settings, including communities, schools and emergencies.

This comprehensive resource brings together examples of good menstrual hygiene practice from around the world; provides guidance on building competence and confidence to break the silence surrounding the issue and encourages increased engagement in advocacy on menstrual hygiene.

Keys to Youth-Friendly Services

This series explores the key elements for 'unlocking' access to sexual and reproductive health services for young people. This includes adopting a sex-positive approach, ensuring confidentiality, and celebrating diversity. Through professional implementation of these approaches, providers could eradicate the stigma and other barriers that prevent young people from accessing the services, information and support that they are entitled to receive.

Girls’ Leadership and Mentoring

High-quality programs for vulnerable girls and young women in disadvantaged communities build leadership skills and provide opportunities. Girls and young women living in the communities in which the programs are taking place must be nurtured until they have adequate skills to lead and mentor other girls in their community. The benefit of building girls’ leadership abilities in these communities is three-fold. It provides heroes and role models for young girls, empowers and strengthens older girls, and challenges outmoded community norms.

Evidence-Based Approaches to Protecting Adolescent Girls at Risk of HIV

Despite decades of investment in HIV prevention, a large and vulnerable population—adolescent girls—remains invisible, underserved, and at disproportionate risk of HIV.

ENGAGE Multimedia Presentations

PRB created ENGAGE Multimedia presentations in collaboration with local implementing agencies in selected countries. Designed to "engage" high-level policymakers and other leaders in issues related to family planning and reproductive health, ENGAGE presentations are capturing attention across the globe. They offer exciting new ways of exploring associations among population, health, and socioeconomic indicators across time in a visually stimulating way. Several of the presentations focus on youth or include issues important to youth.

Child Marriage in Southern Asia: Policy Options for Action

In these policy and advocacy briefs, the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and its partners highlight the life-threatening situations that girls in nine Southern Asian countries face on account of child marriage and recommend ways in which policymakers can prevent the practice. The nine countries included in the briefs are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Because I am a Girl: Learning for Life

The sixth report in Plan’s annual State of the World’s Girls series, Learning for Life, takes a critical look at the state of girls’ education. The report argues that behind the success of global parity in primary education enrolment figures lies a crisis in the quality of learning. Enrolment figures measure attendance on one day of the school year, and they are currently the only measure of success. They tell us nothing about real access to education or the quality of what is being taught, or learned.

Baseline and Endline Findings of Filles Éveillées (Girls Awakened): A Pilot Program for Migrant Adolescent Girls in Domestic Service

Population Council conducted formative research in 2010 to better understand the situation of migrant adolescent girls in domestic service in urban Burkina Faso. This formative research included a desk review of literature on adolescent domestic workers, focus group discussions with adolescent domestic workers, and in-depth interviews with employers, landlords, and nongovernmental organizations. Findings revealed that girls migrate away from home because of a lack of opportunity. Once they arrive in the city, these girls typically live with their employers and work long and arduous days.

Adolescent HIV Care and Treatment: A Training Curriculum for Health Workers

This innovative training package aims to empower multidisciplinary health workers to have the confidence and skills to provide comprehensive, youth-friendly HIV services that support adolescents’ healthy development, psychosocial well-being, retention, adherence, sexual and reproductive health, and eventual transition to adult HIV services. 

Utilizing Participatory Data Collection Methods to Evaluate Programs for Very Young Adolescents: An Evaluation of Save the Children’s Choices Curriculum in Siraha, Nepal

In order to improve gender equity among very young adolescents in Nepal, Save the Children developed the Choices curriculum, designed around eight participatory age and developmentally appropriate activities. The curriculum was piloted in Siraha district, in the Terai region of Nepal, which is known to have a high prevalence of practices that perpetuate gender inequity, such as early marriage, early motherhood and dowry. Choices explores the themes of gender inequity and power, identifying small actions that can promote gender equity and respect, and empower girls.

PROMISES: A Communication Approach Targeting Parents and Community Members in Nepal

PROMISES was developed to compliment CHOICES and aims to create a more gender-equitable environment for children by influencing their parents’ attitudes and behaviors.

Nepali version available upon request from Save the Children.

CHOICES Overview Brief

This brief provides an overview of the CHOICES program. Created specifically for boys and girls aged 10 - 14 years old, the CHOICES curriculum engaged adolescents in fun, developmentally appropriate dialogues about their notions of respect, communication, fairness and their dreams for the future. The goal of the curriculum is to empower youth and adolescents, through systematic thought reasoning and behavior change, to challenge the accepted social gender norms in their community.

CHOICES Curriculum in Egypt

The CHOICES curriculum for 10 to 14 year olds in Egypt aims to empower boys and girls to change gender norms.  Evaluation results show that the Choices curriculum is effective in creating a shift toward more gender-equitable norms in terms of household and school roles and responsibilities among young girls and boys.

Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Toolkit for Humanitarian Settings

This Toolkit is intended to guide humanitarian program managers and healthcare providers to ensure that sexual and reproductive health interventions put into place both during and after a crisis are responsive to the unique needs of adolescents.

ASRH Fact Sheet

This factsheet provides an overview of Save the Children’s adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) country programs, technical initiatives, and new research.

Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Update, 2011

This document provides new information and updates on Save the Children’s adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) country programs, technical initiatives, and new research.

Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Update, 2009

This document provides new information and updates on Save the Children’s adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) country programs, technical initiatives, and new research.

Making Comprehensive Sexuality Education Available at a National Scale: a Case Study about Tailoring International Guidance for Kenya

To help those interested in using sexuality education to improve youth sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes, the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), working with partners, developed the International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education (ITGSE) in 2009. Kenyan leaders in the Ministry of Education (MOE), seeking to capitalize on the wide reach of primary and secondary schooling in the country, worked with FHI 360 and UNESCO to use the ITGSE to strengthen sexuality education in their national curriculum.

YouthLens 38: Mobile Technology for Health

Global mobile phone use is rapidly increasing and a large percentage of mobile phone subscribers are young people. Many programs are capitalizing on their ubiquity as a novel way to reach young people with important health information, and research is beginning to demonstrate that mobile phones are a feasible means of mass communication for this population. This YouthLens shares results from recent research and lessons learned from programs in this field.

YouthLens 37: The Intersection of Economic Empowerment and Youth Sexual and Reproductive Health

Addressing young people’s economic vulnerability has been cited as a promising strategy for improving their sexual and reproductive health (SRH). This brief reviews various types of “economic empowerment” approaches, discusses some promising programs and talks about next steps for this relatively new topic of the intersection of economic empowerment and youth SRH

Assessing and Planning for Youth-Friendly Reproductive Health Services

Part 2 of the FOCUS Tool Series consists of a series of four workbooks:

Listening to Young Voices: Facilitating Participatory Appraisals on Reproductive Health with Adolescents

This first item in the FOCUS on Young Adults Tool Series draws on Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) methodologies to equip fieldworkers with the know-how to design a participatory appraisal for use with adolescents in discussing and analyzing their sexual and reproductive health-related concerns. 

Youth InfoNet 101 (Part 2) - March 2013

Intervention Strategies that Work for Youth–Summary of FOCUS on Young Adults End of Program Report

This paper reports on programs that have helped young people in developing countries practice healthier behaviors. Youth Issues Paper 1 is also available in Spanish and French below.

Youth Issues Paper 2. Applying Social Franchising Techniques to Youth Reproductive Health/HIV Services

This paper examines what role social franchising might have in expanding reproductive health and HIV services for youth.

Youth Issues Paper 3. Teacher Training: Essential for School-Based Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS Education — Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa

This 30-page paper examines the importance of teacher training, the limited evidence in the field, elements of teacher training curricula, teacher selection issues, and issues in Africa including teacher training projects in four countries.

Youth Issues Paper 4. Reaching Out-of-School Youth with Reproductive Health and HIV Information and Services

This paper explores different populations of out-of-school youth, examines the link between schooling and safer sexual behaviors, and presents programs that work with young people who do not or cannot attend formal schools. Four case studies detailing programs working with mainstream and marginalized youth are also included.

Youth Issues Paper 5. Using Global Media to Reach Youth: The 2002 MTV Staying Alive Campaign

This paper summarizes findings from an evaluation of the 2002 campaign, suggesting that a global youth culture exists. The study found clear evidence that this massive global campaign had significant impact on interpersonal communications about HIV/AIDS and also affected social norms in some cases.

Youth Issues Paper 6. Adolescents: Orphaned and Vulnerable in the Time of HIV/AIDS

This 30-page paper introduces the key issues affecting adolescents who are orphaned or vulnerable because of HIV/AIDS. Despite the fact that the majority of orphans are adolescents, most programs working with orphans do not focus on the particular needs of adolescents: secondary education or livelihood training, sexual and reproductive health education and services, psychosocial and social support for the difficult transition to adulthood, and adult mentors as role models. The paper includes analysis, program summaries, four case studies, and recommendations for action.

Youth Issues Paper 7. Youth Peer Education in Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS: Progress, Process, and Programming for the Future

This 28-page report summarizes the latest thinking on youth peer education, as discussed at a two-day international consultation held in Washington, DC in January 2006. The report frames the key issues, provides a summary of evidence of the degree of impact of these programs, discusses major issues for peer education, gives examples of programs that are scaling up activities, and offers suggestions for the future.

YouthNet Country Needs Assessment Tool

Designed for YouthNet consultants conducting country needs assessments at the request of a USAID Mission, this tool is also useful for others doing assessments. The appendices contain sample questions for interviews with stakeholders, youth, and parents, focusing on both technical and organizational issues.

Private Sector Assessment Tool

This handbook is a guide for those interested in helping the private sector serve youth reproductive health. It provides guidelines and resources on how to assess the potential for private-sector involvement with youth, focusing on four strategic areas: livelihoods, social franchising, workplace programs, and nongovernmental capacity building.

Participatory Assessment of Reproductive Health/HIV Prevention Needs of Young People in Namibia, 2003: Final Report

This summary of a participatory assessment process in Namibia discusses the participatory learning and action methodologies used, the youth leadership, the role that faith leaders and churches played, and how the community responded to the community meetings where the findings were shared.

MTV: Staying Alive 2002

This report describes how Staying Alive 2002 was designed and executed, includes an in-depth look at how YouthNet adapted the global campaign in Senegal and Kenya, and contains lessons learned from the campaign. YouthNet partnered with MTV on the 2002 and 2003 Staying Alive Campaigns.

HIV Prevention for Young People in Developing Countries

This report summarizes a meeting held on July 24, 2003, sponsored by the USAID Office of HIV/AIDS, the Institute for Youth Development, and YouthNet/Family Health International. At the meeting, experts discussed patterns of HIV prevalence and risky behaviors among youth, questioned what we know about preventing risky behavior among youth, shared strategies for HIV prevention among young people, and described case studies in reducing HIV prevalence.

New Findings from Intervention Research: Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention

This report summarizes meetings held on September 9 and 10, 2003, sponsored by the Population Council's FRONTIERS and Horizons Programs and YouthNet/Family Health International. Through a series of panel sessions, invited researchers and program staff presented new findings from youth intervention studies in Bangladesh, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, Mexico, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Thailand. These studies involved school-based interventions or multicomponent interventions to foster reproductive health and HIV prevention.

Building a Better Future for Youth: Learning from Experience and Evidence

YouthNet, working with the World Health Organization and FRONTIERS/Population Council, sponsored an Africa regional forum in June 2006 to share latest research results, program evidence, and promising interventions for youth; identify gaps in research and programs; and explore monitoring and evaluation methodologies.

Students Partnership Worldwide

This report summarizes a rapid appraisal of the five major elements of the Students Partnership Worldwide peer education approach in Zambia, which works with teachers, parents, community members, and others. The report includes the interview guides used, data from the interviews, and an analysis of the program's strengths and areas for improvement.

Most Vulnerable Youth in Tanzania

This report summarizes the findings from a participatory assessment among some 500 vulnerable children in Tanzania. The assessment and report were designed to assist the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in developing a national plan of action for these youth.

YouthNet End of Program Report. Taking Action: Recommendations and Resources

The report focuses on the program's top 10 results, with 37 recommendations and resources for taking action. This 64-page report includes a list of YouthNet country activities, a summary of research studies, and an annotated summary of YouthNet publications.

YouthNet 1: Use of Maternal and Child Health Services by Adolescents in Developing Countries

The lower use of maternal and child health services by adolescents, compared with older women, is mainly found in Bangladesh, India, and Indonesia.

YouthNet 2: MTV's Staying Alive 2002 HIV Prevention Campaign

Research on campaign exposure in three countries shows the campaign reached substantial numbers of youth and had significant impact on interpersonal communications about HIV/AIDS and some social norms.

YouthNet 3: Youth Need HIV Counseling When Seeking Reproductive Health Services

A research study in Tanzania found large differences between actual and perceived risk for HIV infection among young reproductive health clients.

YouthNet 4: Football Teams Offer Competition and Education on HIV/AIDS

Struggling youth find new beginnings and help with HIV prevention through 700 football teams in one region of Tanzania.

YouthNet 5: Using Radio to Keep Young People in School

A community-based model in Zambia is making reproductive health and HIV/AIDS part of this growing, national initiative.

YouthNet 6: Faith Groups Turn to Reproductive Health and HIV Issues

Youth and faith leaders, both Christian and Muslim, joined forces as community trainers, leading to new HIV prevention projects.

YouthNet 7: New Tool Offers Skills Building for Youth Participation

YouthNet's Youth Participation Guide helps youth and adults achieve meaningful youth involvement.

YouthNet 8: Participatory Learning and Action: A Powerful Approach with Youth

Participatory approaches led by youth can enhance youth and community involvement, as shown through YouthNet projects in Ethiopia, Namibia, and Tanzania.

YouthNet 9: Assessing Youth Needs and Identifying Program Opportunities

YouthNet's formal assessments in seven countries identified common themes needing attention including gender and contextual factors, sex education, fragmented services, and medical barriers.

YouthNet 10: Youth Survey Provides Wealth of Data on Behavior to Inform Intervention Strategies

This population-based survey in the Iringa region of Tanzania conducted by YouthNet provides a comprehensive picture of youth's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding HIV and reproductive health.

YouthNet 11: School-Based Peer Education Programs Popular in Ghana

A YouthNet research study compared knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors between two sets of schools, focusing on the impact of a peer education program.

YouthNet 12: Services for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT)

A YouthNet research study conducted in 2004 assessed use patterns of PMTCT services by adolescents compared to older youth, as well as content of PMTCT services, factors affecting use of these services by youth, and other issues.

YouthNet 13: Christian Family Life Education Program in Namibia

Churches in Namibia are now approaching taboo subjects about sexuality using a new family life education curriculum through workshops, parent-youth activities, pastor forums, and other activities.

YouthNet 14: Si Mchezo! Magazine Educates and Entertains Rural Tanzanian Youth

This magazine in Tanzania targets rural, out-of-school youth with articles featuring youth and their stories written in simple, direct Swahili, which appeal to youth as well as other community members.

YouthNet 15: National Youth Week in Tanzania Offers Opportunity for HIV Education

YouthNet and partners sponsor competitions, performances, and materials on abstinence and faithfulness to reach tens of thousands during this national week-long celebration.

YouthNet 16: Internet Tool Supports Youth Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS Policy Development and Implementation

The Youth Policy Web site provides a database of policies, plus many more resources such as fact sheets and other information on policy and youth.

YouthNet 17: HIV Counseling and Testing Manual for Youth Provides Valuable Tool

YouthNet developed this tool to provide guidance on counseling youth, approaches to HIV counseling and testing, information on other STIs and contraception, and other resources.

YouthNet 18: Youth Peer Education Toolkit Provides New Resources for Programs

The Y-PEER program provided a springboard for developing a series of training, assessment, and management tools that programs can use globally.

Youth InfoNet 100 (Part 2) - February 2013


Youth InfoNet 100 (Part 1) - February 2013

Youth InfoNet 99 (Part 2) - January 2013

How to Filter Resources

This PDF document has step-by-step instuctions and examples of using filters to narrow down the IYWG Resource collection to find what you need.

Men are Changing: Case Study Evidence on Work with Men and Boys to Promote Gender Equality and Positive Masculinities

This report describes and analyzes 12 programs from around the world that sought to alter the attitudes and behaviors of men in relation to sexuality, sexual and reproductive health, violence, and relationships. The report discusses challenges in this field; provides an overview of emerging good practice; and makes recommendations for improving existing policy work, programs, and services. (IPPF, 2010)

Girls and Their Money: Strategies for Promoting Savings, Financial Education and Social Support for Adolescent Girls in Low-Income Countries

As part of the Nike Foundation’s global initiative to empower adolescent girls, Microfinance Opportunities and three grantee organizations together designed and tested an innovative programming model that combines financial education, savings, and social support. This report provides an overview of these programs, including information on how they evolved and a synthesis of some of the key lessons learned about this approach to building assets for adolescent girls in low income settings.

Missing the Emergency: Shifting the Paradigm for Relief to Adolescent Girls

This call to action resulted from a two-part consultation held by the Coalition of Adolescent Girls. During emergencies, adolescent girls face heightened risk of personal safety violations and human rights abuses. They may forego meals, engage in unsafe livelihoods, assume disproportionate levels of domestic burden, or marry early to relieve their families’ financial responsibilities. Although they are integral to their families’ survival and face harsh realities, humanitarian responses — as currently designed — typically neglect them as a population.

Missing the Emergency: Shifting the Paradigm for Relief to Adolescent Girls

This call to action resulted from a two-part consultation held by the Coalition of Adolescent Girls. During emergencies, adolescent girls face heightened risk of personal safety violations and human rights abuses. They may forego meals, engage in unsafe livelihoods, assume disproportionate levels of domestic burden, or marry early to relieve their families’ financial responsibilities. Although they are integral to their families’ survival and face harsh realities, humanitarian responses — as currently designed — typically neglect them as a population.

Bringing Youth-Friendly Services to Scale in Ethiopia

This technical brief analyzes the scale-up efforts to date of youth-friendly services in the Ethiopian public health system. Stigma, service costs, and provider bias pose formidable barriers to Ethiopian young people’s ability to access sexual and reproductive health services. To address these barriers, in 2005 Pathfinder International and the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health partnered to introduce and scale up youth-friendly services in the Ethiopian public health system. (Pathfinder, 2012)

Shuga Radio

Shuga Radio is intended to help prevent HIV among young people in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Lesotho, South Africa and Tanzania. Shuga Radio is part of larger initiative, Shuga: Love, Sex, Money. The Shuga initiative reaches young people primarily in Africa, through multiple media, with online and on-the-ground components. built around a popular TV series, Shuga: Love, Sex, Money. (UNICEF, HFG, MTV Staying Alive Foundation, 2011)

Faith-based Family Life Education Curricula

These curricula contain a six-workshop guide and a participant handbook designed for a Christian or Muslim audience. The workshop structure encourages open discussion about sexuality, reproductive health, and HIV in the context of faith communities. They provide a forum to clarify Christian and Muslim values around these topics, while providing accurate technical information. 

Workshop sessions covered in the guide:

Promoting Partner Reduction: Helping Young People Understand and Avoid HIV Risks from Multiple Partnerships (PPR). FHI 360, 2012

On behalf of USAID’s Interagency Youth Working Group, FHI 360 produced a curriculum entitled, Promoting Partner Reduction: Helping Young People Understand and Avoid HIV Risks from Multiple Partnerships (PPR). This resource was developed with the late Dr. Doug Kirby of ETR Associates. PPR engages young people in this oftentimes taboo topic with a set of evidence-based activities that help positively affect their knowledge, values, skills, and intentions to reduce multiple sexual partnerships.

Family Life Education: A Handbook for Adults Working with Youth from a Christian Perspective

This handbook by Family Health International provides an introductory resource for adults working with youth in a Christian faith context. It is adapted from the participant handbook used in a training with six, day-long workshops. The 20 sections in this handbook are grouped according to the first five workshop topics. This handbook is an easy-to-use resource, providing basic information and guidance without a formal training curriculum.

Youth InfoNet 99 (Part 1) - January 2013

Focus on Youth: Programming and Investment Recommendations

The 2011 IYWG meeting, “What’s Next? Maintaining the Focus on Youth After Dakar,” was held November 30, 2011 in Dakar, Senegal. There, participants developed strategy recommendations for improving youth sexual and reproductive health (YSRH). This document provides highlights of recommendation from the meeting. The purpose of these recommendations is to inform programing and guide investment at international, country, and local levels.

YouthLens No. 2: Sexuality and Family Life Education Helps Prepare Young People

In-school programs can result in positive behavior changes, but programs vary widely and questions about best models need more attention.

YouthLens No. 5: Condoms and Sexually Active Youth

Condom use among sexually active youth varies widely, due to issues including risk perception, social support, gender, and knowledge gaps.

YouthLens No. 7: Multisectoral Programs Link Intervention Efforts

In Haiti, a coordinated effort addresses health, agriculture, education, and income generation needs of young people through a single project.

YouthLens No. 9: Information and Communications Technology

Technology resources increasingly link professionals working with reproductive health and HIV prevention programs in developing countries. These same resources (e-mail, CD ROMs, listservs, the Internet, radio, and television) hold great promise for reaching youth as well.

YouthLens No. 14: New Resources on Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention, 2002-2004

A sequel to YouthLens No. 1, this summary of major reports and resources with Web links provides guidance to youth-serving organizations.

YouthLens No. 29: HIV-Infected Youth

HIV-infected youth need age-appropriate care and treatment, psychosocial support, and reproductive health counseling.

YouthLens No. 30: Hormonal Methods of Contraception for Youth

Adolescent pregnancies pose particular health risks to mothers and their newborns and can cause young women to struggle socially and economically. Hormonal contraceptives can have an important impact on adolescent health.

YouthLens No. 31: Postabortion Care for Youth

This issue outlines the need for quality postabortion care (PAC) for young women and the challenges of providing this care. It also discusses some recent efforts to implement youth-friendly PAC.

YouthLens No. 32: New Resources on Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention, 2008-2010

This issue of YouthLens provides a summary of some key resources on youth reproductive health and HIV prevention published by internationally known organizations between January 2008 and May 2010.

YouthLens No. 33: Young People Most at Risk for HIV/AIDS

Young people in populations who are considered most at risk of HIV are often poorly served by programs aimed at adults in most-at-risk groups or by those geared toward the general population of youth. This YouthLens discusses some of the issues surrounding work with most-at-risk youth and offers some recommendations.

YouthLens No. 35: Sports for Adolescent Girls

Reproductive health experts think that participation in sports can help girls build social networks, challenge gender norms, and enhance their physical and mental well-being. This YouthLens summarizes a discussion at the most recent meeting of the IYWG, where sports programming was highlighted as an innovative approach to protecting and empowering girls.

Tips to Share: Practicing Abstinence

(2 pages, 50 KB)

These Tips help young people develop a strategy for choosing abstinence. (excerpted from HIV Counseling and Testing for Youth, Family Health International/YouthNet, 2005)

YouthLens No. 26: Youth and Injecting Drug Users

Most injecting drug users start the practice before age 25, yet few HIV prevention programs targeting injecting drug use focus on youth — either to prevent the initiation of injecting or to reduce risks of HIV associated with injecting drugs.

YouthLens No. 8: Abstinence and Delayed Sexual Initiation

Programs that include comprehensive messages can teach skills for practicing abstinence as well as provide information for sexually active youth about condoms and reducing the number of partners.

YouthLens No. 27: Addressing the Needs of Young Adolescents.

Most research and interventions addressing youth reproductive health (RH) and HIV issues have focused on older adolescents (ages 15 to 19) or young adults (ages 20 to 24). Recently, a growing number of projects are focusing on the needs of young adolescents (ages 10 to 14). Few of these projects have been evaluated, however, and more rigorous research is needed to identify the most promising aspects of the new projects for replication and expansion.

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YouthLens No. 23: New Web Sites Make Information about Youth More Accessible

More information than ever before is being produced on youth reproductive health (RH) and HIV issues - research findings, program tools, case studies, meeting notices, and more. However, program planners, researchers, and policymakers often cannot find the information they need because it is buried in the large volumes of material produced. To address this need, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has recently funded three Web sites that make youth RH/HIV information easier to find and that provide guidance on what tools are most helpful.

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YouthLens No. 22: Scaling up youth reproductive health and HIV prevention programs.

In recent years, several major youth reproductive health (RH) and HIV prevention projects have included in their design the goal of expanding from a pilot site to significantly larger delivery areas. Other projects have sought to change policies and engage national ministries in an effort to ensure that large-scale implementation can occur. And, many include evaluations showing successful outcomes.

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YouthLens No. 1: New Resources Available on Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention

A growing number of policies and programs are attempting to help young people practice healthy sexual behaviors, improve reproductive health, and prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. What follows is a roadmap to some of the most recent documents synthesizing major findings in this field, organized by overview reports, summaries of agency programs/publications, bibliography/data, and reference and training materials. (excerpt)

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YouthLens No. 11: Maternal Health Care Among Adolescents.

The use of health care services by pregnant adolescents has the potential to reduce death and disability. Maternal death and disability represent an enormous public health problem in the developing world. For every 100,000 live births, women in the developing world are 22 times more likely than those in developed countries to die during or after pregnancy. Compared with women in their twenties, adolescents ages 15 to 19 are two times more likely to die during childbirth, and those ages 14 years and younger are five times more likely.

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YouthLens No. 4: Youth-Adult Partnerships Show Promise

Increasingly, donors and nongovernmental organizations involved in HIV prevention and reproductive health issues are attempting to make young people a more prominent part of programming. Youth should be involved from the start as full and active partners in all stages from conceptualization, design, implementation, feedback, and follow-up, advises the World Health Organization. In the reproductive health and HIV/AIDS fields, information about the impact of youth-adult partnerships is limited.

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YouthLens No. 6: Participatory learning and action.

To begin planning its program, the new Ethiopian Ministry of Youth, Sports, and Culture turned to an approach called participatory learning and action, or PLA. Officials involved young people throughout the country in a learning and planning process for the Ministry. The youth developed a national youth charter and a three-year action plan to mobilize youth for improved sexual health and HIV/AIDS preventive behavior. Plus, the process led to the creation of a dynamic network of young people committed to the health and future of the country. (excerpt)

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The sexual and reproductive health of young adolescents in developing countries: reviewing the evidence, identifying research gaps, and moving the agenda 

The overall objective of the WHO technical consultation was to identify a set of policy-relevant themes, methodologies, and potential country settings for a program of collaborative research on the sexual and reproductive health and rights of younger adolescents. The specific objectives were to (a) identify key problems, needs, and proposed interventions; (b) determine which types of data would be most useful for planning and program purposes in developing countries; and (c) propose methodologies for obtaining these data.

Risk and Protective Factors Affecting Adolescent Reproductive Health in Developing Countries

Based on an in-depth literature review of 158 articles (screened from a larger pool), this report examines factors that affect premarital sex, number of sexual partners, contraceptive and condom use, HIV infection, and other issues.

Misperceptions amongst Boys in the Islamic Republic of Iran about Sexual and Reproductive Health

This social science research policy three-page brief summarizes a recent study from Iran involving a population-bases survey of 1,385 boys aged 15 to 18. The data can be useful for researchers, program managers, and policy makers.

A Guide to Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluating National HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs for Young People

This guide to indicators is meant to ensure that HIV prevention efforts aimed at young people are appropriately monitored and evaluated. It is intended for national-level program managers.

Adolescence: A Time That Matters

This advocacy tool uses statistics, case studies, diagrams, and other aids to emphasize the rights and special needs of adolescents and the importance of programs that are specifically tailored to their needs. Information on young people living with HIV is included.

French - http://www.unicef.org/french/publications/index_4266.html
Spanish - http://www.unicef.org/spanish/publications/index_4266.html

Reducing HIV Infection in Young Women in Southern Africa: The Key to Altering Epidemic Trajectories in a Generalized, Hyperendemic Setting 

Spotlight on Prevention is a quarterly editorial series of expert voices on current topics in HIV prevention. In this issue the authors describe the HIV epidemic in South Africa and express the need to target girls and young women in prevention efforts.

Working With Young Refugees to Ensure Their Reproductive Health and Wellbeing: It's Their Right and Our Duty

This advocacy tool and program guide was written for programmatic and policy professionals who work in adolescent reproductive health. The document provides an overview of the specific reproductive health needs of young refugees, checklists of guiding principles and programmatic strategies to help ensure their reproductive health and well-being, and a list of useful resources for service providers working with this population.

What Religious Leaders Can Do about HIV/AIDS

This advocacy tool, tested by religious leaders in Africa and Asia, is intended to educate religious leaders of various faiths about issues regarding young people and HIV/AIDS. The document also encourages religious leaders to educate their communities and use their influence and resources to curtail the epidemic. 
French - http://www.unicef.org/french/publications/index_19024.html

Too Often in Silence: A Report on School-based Violence in West and Central Africa 

There are no comprehensive reporting systems of violent acts in West and Central Africa, whether they occur inside or outside schools. Nevertheless, existing studies on school-based violence in West and Central Africa reveal that many schools in the region, both private and public, need to improve to become safe and protective environments for children. 

Education, Youth and Development: UNESCO in Latin America and the Caribbean

This publication is produced by UNESCO's Regional Bureau of Education for Latin America and the Caribbean (OREALC/UNESCO Santiago). This document analyses the Millennium Development Goals and the Education for All (EFA) goals from the perspective of youth. Innovative experiences described in the publication include UNESCO's assistance in drafting public policy in Brazil, the implementation of a post-earthquake educational model in Haiti, and teacher training on HIV/AIDS prevention and reduction of the effects of violence in Mexico.

Early Marriage: A Harmful Traditional Practice

The research documented here uses data from the Demographic and Household Surveys to identify the prevalence of child marriage and uncover associated statistical factors.

Ending Child Marriage: A Guide for Global Policy Action

Written for policy-makers, donors, and international agencies, this report describes the global impact of child marriage, the human rights obligation of governments to intervene, factors that promote and reinforce the practice, useful contact organizations, and programmatic and policy recommendations.

Youth Speak Out: One-page essay reference guides

This document is a series of short reports on various youth-oriented issues. Each report contains an issue summary, recommendations for action, a summary of relevant issues and trends, and a discussion of promising practices. Reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, gender-based violence, and re-integrating young people formerly associated with armed conflict are among the topics included. 

The State of the World's Children 2011: Adolescence—An Age of Opportunity

This report examines the global state of adolescents; outlines the challenges they face in health, education, protection, and participation; and explores their risks and vulnerabilities. It also stresses the imperative of investing in the world's 1.2 billion adolescents, based on the belief that these investments can break entrenched cycles of poverty and inequity.

Cross-Generational Relationships: Using a ‘Continuum of Volition’ in HIV Prevention Work among Young People

This document describes the “Continuum of Volition” developed by Save the Children and the Mannoff Group as an explanatory model of young women’s motivations for engaging in cross-generational relationships. It includes a guide for the development of intervention strategies.

Act, Learn and Teach: Theatre, HIV, and AIDS: Toolkit for Youth In Africa

This colorful, clearly written booklet discusses the use of theater as a tool to raise community awareness about HIV/AIDS. Chapters discuss respecting cultural norms and values, and creating and executing a community-specific play. Also provided are helpful resources about theater, youth participation, and group activities. It is written for use by educators and others who work with youth groups or community theater organizations.

Girls, HIV/AIDS and Education

This report describes the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic to young people and particularly adolescent girls, the specific challenges and needs of girls, the power of girls' education in curtailing the epidemic, and a call to action for national and international policy-makers.
French - http://www.unicef.org/french/publications/index_25047.html
Spanish - http://www.unicef.org/spanish/publications/index_25047.html

Empowering Young Women to Lead Change: A Training Manual 

Intended for self-study by young women, this manual empowers users to prepare and lead training workshops. Facilitation tips and icebreakers are included, as well as modules on topics including violence against women, sexual and reproductive health, self-esteem, and HIV/AIDS. 

Keeping the Promise: An Agenda for Action on Women and AIDS

This document calls for a "massive scaling up of AIDS responses for women and girls." The booklet describes the current global situation regarding women, girls, and HIV/AIDS within the historical context of previous governmental attempts to address the issue. Specific recommendations for actions are discussed within broader mandates to secure women's rights, invest more money in AIDS programs that work for women, and strengthen women's participation in programs and policy development.

HIV Prevention for Girls and Young Women: Report Cards

Designed as an advocacy tool for distribution to key stakeholders, each nation's “report card” presents a summary of the state of HIV prevention for girls and young women and provides specific recommendations for future policy, programs, and funding. Each report draws on statistics, published data, and quotes to provide a detailed overview of national laws and policies, availability and accessibility of services, and human rights, participation, and advocacy. 

The Young Face of NEPAD: Children and Young People in the New Partnership for Africa's Development

This document makes the case for investing in Africa's children and adolescents and then outlines priorities; programmatic and policy strategies; and steps for monitoring, peer review, accountability, and mobilizing resources. 
French - http://www.unicef.org/french/publications/index_20981.html

On the Right Track?

This guidebook includes activities, instructions, advice, and advocacy information for professionals who wish to integrate information on sexuality and sexual health into broader youth development programs. The document includes descriptions of successful programs and a list of resources.

Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education: Kindergarten through 12th Grade

These guidelines, developed by a national task force of experts in the fields of adolescent development, health care, and education, provide a framework of the key concepts, topics, and messages that all sexuality education programs would ideally include. Although written for U.S. audiences, these guidelines have served as the basis for sexuality education programs in the developing world as well.

Preventing HIV/AIDS among Adolescents through Integrated Communication Programming

Written for national program or project officers in youth HIV-prevention, this resource employs a series of checklists to guide readers through the planning, implementation, and evaluation of integrated communication programming. Advocacy, behavior change, and education are emphasized as key components of effective programs. 

Training guide for peer health education programs in Africa; UNESCO-sponsored programmes and publications

This publication describes the development and implementation of a program to train young people as peer educators who teach classmates and friends about various health issues, including HIV/AIDS and other STIs. The guide covers goals and objectives, methodology, sustainability, step-by-step implementation, and detailed resources such as "real-life stories," performance ideas, evaluation forms, and health knowledge surveys.

Preventing HIV/AIDS in Young People : A Systematic Review of the Evidence from Developing Countries

This book contains the entire review, including the project rationale, a general discussion of young people and HIV infection, study methodology, detailed discussions of the interventions reviewed, and conclusions and recommendations.

Will You Listen?: Young Voices from Conflict Zones

Compiled from focus groups with more than 1,700 young people in 92 countries, this report includes direct quotes and summaries of qualitative data regarding the impact of armed conflict on children and young people. Sections on non-consensual sex and living with HIV are included.

Partnering with Local Organizations to Support the Reproductive Health of Adolescent Refugees: A Three-Year Analysis

This report discusses the creation of the Eleanor Bellows Pillsbury Fund for Reproductive Health Care and Adolescent Refugees. Background information about the problem, the process of implementing the fund, specific accomplishments, lessons learned, and strategies for future expansion are included. 

Annotated Bibliography of Reports on Reproductive Health on the Thai Burma Border 

This research aid is an annotated bibliography of resources from the mid-1990s through 2004. Resources regarding young people are included.

Youth Speak Out: New Voices on the Protection and Participation of Young People Affected by Armed Conflict

This report describes the results of research involving more than 3,000 young people in Kosovo, Sierra Leone, and northern Uganda, as well as Burmese youth in Thailand and Afghani youth in Pakistan. Topics include gender-based violence and health. 

Don't Forget Us: The Education and Gender-Based Violence Protection Needs of Adolescent Girls from Darfur in Chad

This report summarizes data gathered from educators, health care personnel, and women's groups during visits to 10 Sudanese refugee camps in eastern Chad. The adolescent girls, their education, and gender-based violence are among the topics discussed.

Gender and Child Protection Policies: Where do UNHCR's Partners Stand?

This document provides results from a study examining policies, tools, and accountability mechanisms regarding gender and child/youth protection employed by organizations funded by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Few policies specific to gender equality and child protection were reported. The authors recommend increased advocacy from the UNHRC to encourage partners to develop appropriate policies.

Untapped Potential: Displaced Youth

This booklet provides a brief overview of the goals of the WCRWC's displaced youth program. The document includes a list of references that may be useful for further research.

AIDSTAR –One Case Study Series

This series documents innovative approaches in emerging areas of HIV. These engaging case studies are designed for implementers and program planners, documenting the steps from idea to intervention and from research to practice. Several of the fourteen case studies involve programs working specifically with youth reproductive health, including one focusing on a program addressing the risks of intergenerational relationships. All are available on the website and as PDF documents.

At the Crossroads: Accelerating Youth Access to HIV/AIDS Interventions

This advocacy document describes how young people remain at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in terms of transmission, vulnerability, impact, and potential for change. It outlines young people’s specific needs (including access to youth-friendly information and services) and discusses factors required to effectively scale up efforts to help this population.

Preventing HIV/AIDS in Young People: The First Systematic Review of What Works to Prevent HIV Infection among Young People in Developing Countries: A Summary of the WHO Technical Report Series No 938

This executive summary includes brief descriptions of the general characteristics of interventions graded “GO!,” or ready for use, and tables of recommendations, grouped by setting, for program development and for research.

Preparing for the Introduction of HPV Vaccines: Policy and Programme Guidance for Countries

This document introduces stakeholders to the key issues surrounding efforts to introduce the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to fight cervical cancer. Adolescent girls are the primary target for vaccination.

Children and Youth Participation Resource Guide

This document contains summary descriptions of, as well as hyper-links to, resources about child and youth participation. These resources include research documents, Web sites, programmatic guides, policy tools, and more.  A CD-ROM containing all the resources is also available through UNICEF.

What Parliamentarians Can Do about HIV/AIDS

This advocacy tool makes the case for the urgency of the issues surrounding young people and HIV/AIDS and calls upon elected leaders to educate their constituencies and to lobby for appropriate legislation and resource allocation.
French - http://www.unicef.org/french/publications/index_19021.html

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: Do They Matter for Children and Young People Made Vulnerable by HIV/AIDS?

This desk review examines how poverty reduction strategy papers and national strategic HIV/AIDS plans address young people made vulnerable by HIV. It concludes that few countries can successfully implement changes advocated by these plans, and it makes recommendations for future action and research.

Children and AIDS: A Stocktaking Report

This report assesses the first year of the campaign Unite for Children, Unite against AIDS. It notes important actions and changes underway, including a reduction in HIV prevalence resulting from behavior change among young people. It also discusses unmet challenges and future programmatic strategies.
French - http://www.unicef.org/french/publications/index_38048.html

Children and AIDS: Fifth Stocktaking Report 

The Fifth Stocktaking Report—produced by UNICEF, in partnership with UNAIDS, WHO, UNFPA, and UNESCO—is an annual report that examines data on progress, emerging evidence, case studies of best practices, and current knowledge and practice for children as they relate to four program areas known as the 'Four Ps': preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV, providing pediatric care and treatment, preventing HIV infection among adolescents and young people, and protecting and supporting children affected by HIV and AIDS.

Profiting From Abuse 

This award-winning publication describes the experiences of young people who are involved in the sex trade in their own words and also includes the opinions of concerned experts.
French - http://www.unicef.org/french/publications/index_5623.html
Spanish - http://www.unicef.org/spanish/publications/index_5623.html

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Exploration

This research report analyzes available statistical information about female genital mutilation and cutting in order to highlight differentials in prevalence and understand associated statistical factors.

Child Protection Information Sheets

The fourteen information sheets in this booklet each discuss one of the various forms of abuse and exploitation of children and young people, including early marriage and non-consensual sex. Tips for creating a safe environment are included.
French - http://www.unicef.org/french/publications/index_34146.html
Spanish - http://www.unicef.org/spanish/publications/index_34146.html

The Impact of Conflict on Women and Girls in West and Central Africa and the UNICEF Response

This document describes the circumstances and challenges of women and girls affected by war in this region and highlights innovative programs being implemented with UNICEF partners to address their needs. The report includes information on gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS.
French - http://www.unicef.org/french/publications/index_25262.html

HIV/AIDS Impact on Education Clearinghouse

Coordinated by the International Institute for Educational Planning/UNESCO and funded by UNAIDS, this project supports the planning and management of HIV/AIDS education programs by collecting and disseminating the most recent studies and research. The homepage includes a site map, an index of resources grouped by topic area, and links to several contributing organizations.

Health information for peer health education programs in Africa; UNESCO-sponsored programmes and publications

Written to provide an accurate source of health related information for peer health educators, this booklet contains detailed information and illustrations about human reproduction, STI, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, addiction, and healthy relationships.

Gender and HIV Prevention Education in the Asia and Pacific Region

Written for educators working in non-formal settings in the Asia/Pacific region, this report provides information and tools to reach young people, especially young women, with HIV-prevention messages.  The report discusses the complexities of regional gender issues (such as early marriage), drug use, and gender-related barriers to information and services. Programmatic successes from various countries are also provided, including examples of best practices, including street drama, life skills, and mobile outreach programs. 

Focusing Resources on Effective School Health (FRESH) - HIV/AIDS resources page

FRESH is a UNESCO initiative intended to improve the health of school children throughout the world by emphasizing activities in four interrelated areas: school health policies, water/sanitation/the environment, skills-based health education, and school-based health and nutrition services.

We are all in the same boat! Using Art and Creative Approaches with Young People to Tackle HIV-related Stigma

This toolkit is a set of ideas on how to use art and creative approaches to build a new understanding about HIV stigma and human rights, and on how young people can work together to challenge stigma and discrimination. The toolkit uses different art forms and creative activities—drama and role playing, games, drumming, dance, puppets, story telling, pictures, drawing, and collages—to spark new thinking about HIV stigma, change attitudes, and challenge young people to do something.

Establishing National Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education - Lessons and Inspiration from Nigeria

This booklet describes the lessons learned from the process of working with local organizations to develop a national framework for comprehensive sexuality education. 

Developing Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education 

Written for health educators, providers, and other advocates in international contexts, this booklet provides a step-by-step outline for developing comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) guidelines, including how to organize a task force, how to develop and draft guidelines, and how to prepare for opposition. Sample forms and agendas are included, as well as an explanation of the rationale for CSE programs and a list of further resources. Case studies and examples are drawn from Nigeria and the United States.

Working to Improve the Reproductive and Sexual Health of Young People: Save the Children’s Experiences in Bhutan, Malawi, Nepal and Vietnam

This 36-page end-of-project report provides an overview of Save the Children’s ARSH programs funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in Bhutan, Malawi, Nepal, and Vietnam from 1999-2004. It also includes a list of tools and educational materials developed for these programs.

Pregnant or positive: Adolescent childbearing and HIV risk in South Africa

In communities where early age of childbearing is common and HIV prevalence is high, adolescents may place themselves at risk of HIV because of positive or ambivalent attitudes toward pregnancy. These attitudes reduce their motivation to abstain from sex, have sex less often, or use condoms. This study involves the analysis of cross-sectional survey data from KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, to explore whether an association exists between the desire for pregnancy and perceptions of HIV risk among adolescents communities. 

Actions that Protect: Promoting Sexual and Reproductive Health and Choice among Young People in India

This paper synthesizes the evidence on the sexual and reproductive health of young people in India and explores what we know about underlying factors that place them at risk of or protect them from unsafe and unwanted sexual and reproductive health experiences.

Formation of Partnerships among Young Women and Men in Pune District, Maharashtra

The KEM Hospital Research Centre and the Population Council conducted a study in Pune district, Maharashtra in 2003–2005, one of the first exercises in India of obtaining information on romantic and sexual partnership formation and sexual activity among young people. The study focused on exploring the situation of unmarried and married young women and men ages 15–24 in rural and urban slum settings. This report describes findings of the study.

‘Milking the Cow.’ Young Women’s Constructions of Identity, Gender, Power and Risk in Transactional and Cross-generational Sexual Relationships: Maputo, Mozambique

This report presents the findings of a qualitative study carried out in Maputo, Mozambique, among young women engaged in cross-generational transactional sex. Cross-generational sex significantly contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS in Mozambique and is a key area for behavior change interventions.

Shifting Support for Inequitable Gender Norms among Young Indian Men to Reduce HIV Risk and Partner Violence

A participatory, group intervention to promote gender equity, which was adapted from a successful program in Brazil, was piloted with young men in Mumbai. Compared to baseline, intervention participants decreased their support for inequitable gender norms, reported less sexual harassment, and had trends toward less risky behaviors. A larger study to test the impact of the intervention is now ongoing.

Scaling Up a Reproductive Health Curriculum in Youth Training Courses

This report discusses an intervention in which reproductive health education was integrated into vocational training courses. Pre- and post-test results indicated significant positive changes in reproductive health knowledge, attitudes, and life skills among the youth. These results justified the scaling up process, working with various ministries.

The Reproductive Health of Young People in Ethiopia’s New Millennium: The Initiative to Save Young Generation’s Health Today (INSYGHT) Final Evaluation

This report summarizes key results from an impact evaluation of the multi-component INSYGHT program in Oromia Region and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Evaluation results showed that the intervention helped youth delay sexual debut, reduce high-risk sexual behaviors, access key health services, and discuss ARSH topics with parents.

Program Results: Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health in West Visayas, Philippines

This brief describes a program by Save the Children to improve adolescent reproductive and sexual health in the Philippines. The program's methodology, results, and lessons learned are discussed.

Multi-Country Study on Trusted Partners among Youth: Eritrea, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe 

This report explores youth’s definitions of “trust,” identifies types of individuals youth believe they can and cannot trust, examines trust’s influence on sexual decision-making and STI/HIV risk perception, and identifies how sexual partners violate trust and the effects on sexual decision-making.

The Changing Context of Sexual Initiation in sub-Saharan Africa

This paper investigates the links between changing age at marriage and premarital sexual behavior in 27 sub-Saharan African countries in which Demographic and Health Surveys were conducted between 1994 and 2003. Using multiple-decrement life tables to examine the competing risks of premarital sex and marriage without prior sexual experience, the authors answer the largely unaddressed question of how reductions in the prevalence of early marriage have affected the likelihood of initiating premarital sex.

Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Unsafe Sexual Behaviors among Young Women and Men in South Africa

Using household survey data collected in 2001, this study investigates how relative socioeconomic status influences the sexual behaviors of young women and men ages 14–24 years in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa—an environment characterized by high HIV prevalence and high rates of poverty and inequality. 

Adolescents and Reproductive Health in Pakistan: A Literature Review

This paper reviews research on adolescent and reproductive health issues in Pakistan. The sources of materials include national surveys, medical research, and research conducted by nongovernmental organizations. 

Dangerous Liaisons—People in Cross-Generational Relationships Underestimate Risk

This study found that most Kenyan women and men entering into cross-generational relationships underestimate the risk of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV. 

Cross-Generational Relationships in Kenya: Couples’ Motivations, Risk Perception for STIs/HIV and Condom Use

This report discusses young women’s and men’s motivations for entering into cross-generational relationships and examines how their risk perception of HIV and other STIs affects sexual decision-making and condom use.

Cross-Generational and Transactional Sexual Relations in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence of Behavior and Implications for Negotiating Safer Sexual Practices

This literature review assesses the extent of sexual relations between adolescent girls and older male partners in sub-Saharan Africa, the extent of transactional sex, and the behavioral dynamics of girls and men involved in these sexual relations. 

Emergency Contraception Operations Research Project Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya: Final report

This report shares the findings from a research project titled “Enhancing the Use of Emergency Contraception in a Refugee Setting Operation” conducted by Population Council and IRC.  The goal of this project was to improve the quality of reproductive health services for refugees and the local Turkana population in Kakuma through operations research on the introduction of emergency contraception (EC).

An Assessment of Youth Centres in South Africa 

This study was designed to give implementing agencies and donors a broad view of how the youth centers function, who they reach, and the quality of information and services they provide. In total, twelve youth centers from three agencies were included in the study.

Improving the Reproductive Health of Adolescents in Senegal

This report documents a three-year project to test three interventions (community-, clinic-, and school-based) that were designed to improve the reproductive health of youth aged 10-19.

Cameroon Youth Program Stimulates Healthy Behavior 

Three rounds of surveys reveal that a program targeting young people in Cameroon motivated several types of healthy behavior related to reproductive health. 

FRONTIERS Adolescent Reproductive Health Project

This paper discusses a project in which two theatre groups were trained to stage performances on youth reproductive health topics at community gatherings.

Consistency in the reporting of sexual behavior among adolescent girls in Kenya: A comparison of interviewing methods

This paper explores the consistency in reporting of sexual behavior in a household survey of adolescents ages 15–21 in the Kisumu district of Kenya. The analysis focuses on the reporting of sexual behavior by adolescent girls and compares responses to a variety of questions about sexual activity, including sexual initiation, risky sexual behavior, and coerced sex.